Opus quadratum

Opus quadratum

Opus quadratum is an ancient Roman construction technique, in which squared blocks of stone of the same height were set in parallel courses, often without the use of mortar.

Contents

Technique

This technique was used by the Romans from about the 6th century BC and over time, the precision and accuracy of the block cutting improved. The technique continued to be used throughout the age of the Roman Empire, even after the introduction of mortar, and was often used in addition to other techniques. The type of stone, the size of the blocks, and the way the blocks were put together can all be used to help archeologists date structures that display the technique.

Etruscan way

In early usage (often called the "Etruscan way"), the joints between the blocks introduce discontinuities, making the blocks uneven. Examples of such construction can be found in reservoirs, basements, terrace walls, and temple podiums in Etruscan cities and Rome.

Greek way

Subsequently (the "Greek way"), the blocks would be placed in one of two rotations. "Stretchers" would be placed so the longer side was on the face of the wall, and "headers" would be placed so the shorter side was on the face of the wall, and would thus extend further back into the wall thickness. Various patterns could be produced by changing how the blocks were placed, and it was common to strengthen the wall by ensuring that the joints between blocks were centered over the blocks in the row below.

Roman concrete

With the introduction of Roman concrete, continuous outer walls were often constructed, with some blocks laid as headers in order to attach to the inner wall. Tile or marble can be found cemented to such walls, but this was less common for those structures that were particularly load-bearing, such as arches and pillars used for bridges and aqueducts.

See also


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Opus quadratum — Opus quadratum  вид кирпичной кладки в древнем Риме, при которой внешние стены выкладывались из отёсанных камней квадратной формы, а между стенами заливался бетон. Витрувий различал два вида кладки: opus isodomum, при которой камни были… …   Википедия

  • Opus quadratum — In der römischen Antike wurden viele Techniken zum Bau einer Mauer (inklusive Fußböden und Decken) genutzt, ein Großteil von diesen wurde sogar neu geschaffen. Im Laufe der Zeit entstanden Mauerwerke wie: Opus albarium ist ursprünglich Stuck, der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Opus quadratum — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Opus. L opus quadratum est la technique romaine de construction murale qui utilise des blocs de pierre parallélépipédiques (pour le grand appareil de 70 × 40 × 40 cm) en assise horizontale. Quand les pierres …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Opus quadratum — (a) sistema griego isodomo (b) sistema griego de ortostatos y diátonos alternados …   Wikipedia Español

  • opus quadratum — ò·pus qua·drà·tum loc.s.m.inv., lat. TS archeol. in Roma antica, struttura muraria basata sull uso di blocchi di pietra di forma quadrangolare, disposti in strati orizzontali alternati uno nel senso della lunghezza e l altro in quello della… …   Dizionario italiano

  • Opus quadratum —    римская гладкая кладка из прямоугольных камней.    (Архитектура: иллюстрированный справочник, 2005) …   Архитектурный словарь

  • opus quadratum — …   Useful english dictionary

  • opus — [ ɔpys ] n. m. • 1832; mot lat. « ouvrage » ♦ Mus. Indication utilisée pour désigner un morceau de musique avec son numéro dans l œuvre complète d un compositeur (Abrév.Op.). Numéro d opus des œuvres de Bach (B. W. V.), Mozart (Köchel). Beethoven …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Opus caementicium — was the Roman technique of constructing structures using concrete. It was used from the beginning of the Roman republic through the whole history of the Roman empire.Opus caementicium, like other forms of concrete, is made from a mix of aggregate …   Wikipedia

  • Opus — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « Opus », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) Opus est le mot latin pour ouvrage ou œuvre. Il… …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”