- Baritone saxophone
range= lower. Many models include the low A, a half step below the saxophone's normal lowest note, and some models have a key to facilitate the playing of the F# at the top of the range. Note: Through use of overtones, the saxophones high range can be extended.
Subcontrabass saxophone---- Orchestral family:
C melody saxophone
*C soprano saxophone ----Other saxophones:
List of saxophonists
SaxophoneThe baritone saxophone, often called "bari sax" (to avoid confusion with the baritone horn, which is often referred to simply as "baritone"), is one of the larger and lower pitched members of the saxophonefamily. It was invented by Adolphe Sax. The baritone is distinguished from smaller sizes of saxophone by the extra loop near its mouthpiece; this helps to keep the instrument at a practical height (the rarer bass saxophonehas a similar, but larger loop).
The baritone saxophone is the largest saxophone commonly seen in modern ensembles. The other common saxophones are the alto, tenor and soprano. It is a transposing instrument in the key of Emusic|b, one octave lower than the
alto saxophone, although Adolphe Sax had originally also produced a baritone saxophone in F intended for orchestral use. Despite its low register, music for the baritone saxophone is written in treble clef. It is also possible to read parts written in the bass clef for instruments pitched in C as if the part was in the treble clef, while adjusting the key signature from C to A and any accidentals as necessary. (In other words, the player simply pretends the bass clef music were written in treble clef and adds three sharps to the key signature.) This is often useful for reading tubaor tromboneparts in songs without a written baritone saxophone part.
The exceptional weight of the instrument (13-14 pounds or 6.5 kg), as compared to the other three commonly used sizes of saxophone, makes it difficult to use in marching bands. Baritone saxophone players in marching groups often use a special harness that distributes the weight of the instrument onto the player's back instead of around his or her neck, as is the conventional way of supporting the instrument. The baritone saxophone can still be used in a marching band with the standard neckstrap. Its reed size is notably large, twice that of an
alto saxophonereed and noticeably larger than that used by the tenor saxophone.
The fingerings for all of the instruments in the saxophone family are essentially the same and many players play more than one saxophone. The baritone saxophone, however, is the only member of the saxophone family which often possesses a "low A" key (sounding concert C, the same pitch as the lowest note on the
cello), whereas most other saxophones descend only to a fingered B music|b, though altos and basses have been manufactured with low A keys, and Benedikt Eppelsheimnow makes a contrabass saxophonewith one; (sounding pitch depending on the key of the particular instrument).
In classical music
The baritone saxophone is used in classical music (particularly as a member of a
saxophone quartet), but composers have rarely called for it in orchestral music. Examples include Richard Strauss' " Symphonia Domestica", composed in 1902-03; Béla Bartók's "Wooden Prince" ballet music, Charles Ives' "Symphony no. 4", composed in 1910-16, and Gershwin's " Rhapsody in Blue" and " An American in Paris". It has a comparatively small solo repertoire although an increasing number of concertos have appeared. Solo works with orchestral accompaniment include Gerry Mulliganand Bill Holman's "Entente" (1966); concertos by Frank Proto(1973), Werner Wolf Glaser(1992, for string orchestra), Benjamin Boone (2003), and Georg Friedrich Haas(2008); Harry Freedman's "Celebration" for baritone saxophone and orchestra (1977); Robert Nelson's "Concertino" (1996); Herb Gellis' "Corduroy" (2002-03); jazz saxophonist Dale Fielder's "Light and Shadow" (2007, for chamber orchestra); and David Gaines' "and dispel the miseries of the world" (2008, for chamber orchestra). A recording of the Gaines composition will be released by Navona Records in 2009 with baritone saxophonist James DeJoie accompanied by the Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestraconducted by Kirk Trevor.
In popular music
Baritone sax is an important part of military bands, concert bands, jazz bands, wind ensembles and is common in musical theater, especially those of the more "jazzy" type, e.g. "
Anything Goes", " Mack and Mabel", " Chicago". In concert bands, it often plays a part similar to that of the tuba. The baritone player usually plays rather simple rhythms in order to maintain the musical pulse of the group. Often, this consists of quarter notes on beats one and three in 4/4 time.
The baritone plays a notable role in many
Motownhits of the 60s, and has often been heard in the horn sections of funk, blues, and soul bands. It is sometimes also used in rock music. For example, it is featured along with a tenor sax in " Shine On You Crazy Diamond" by Pink Floydfrom the album " Wish You Were Here". Paul Simonoften includes a baritone saxophone in concert performances of Late in the Evening.
Prominent baritone saxophonists in contemporary American popular music include
David Bowie, [http://music.barnesandnoble.com/search/product.asp?EAN=724359451121&z=y] Dana Colley of Morphine and A.K.A.C.O.D., Skerikof Critters Buggin, Clarence Clemons, John Linnellof They Might Be Giants, and Justin Harrisof Menomena. Linnell and Colley also play bass saxophoneon occasion. Many saxophonists also play a baritone on occasion including Dick Parry, Dave Koz, Clarence Clemons, Ben Ellmanof Galactic, [http://www.galacticfunk.com/NEW2007/band/index.php?skin=2] and David Sanborn.Fact|date=February 2007
Nigerian Afrobeat singer, musician, and bandleader
Fela Kutitypically featured two baritone saxophone players in his band (most American jazz big bands feature only one).
Although few classical saxophonists perform exclusively on the baritone saxophone, a number of jazz performers have used it as their primary instrument. The baritone is an important instrument in the
big band, being the largest size of saxophone used in that ensemble (although the larger bass saxophonewas occasionally used up to the 1940s). One of the instrument's pioneers was Duke Ellington's longtime baritone player, Harry Carney, who played both accompanying bass lines as well as exuberant solos and improvisations.
In big bands, the role of the baritone player usually involves doubling with the bass trombone, bass, or first alto saxophone but in some cases it has an independent part. (The saxophone section of a standard
jazz bandcontains two altos, two tenors, and a baritone.) The baritone player is usually expected to double on bass clarinet.
Since the mid-1950s, master baritone saxophone soloists such as
Gerry Mulligan, Lars Gullin, Cecil Payne, and Pepper Adamsachieved fame, and Serge Chaloffwas the first player of the instrument to achieve fame as a bebopsoloist. In the 1970s, a jazz band called the Baritone Saxophone Retinue consisted of between six and ten baritone saxophones, backed up by a rhythm section. A similar group, the International Baritone Conspiracy, which featured six baritones, was formed in the 1990s.
More recent notable performers include Ken Ponticelli,
Hamiet Bluiett(who has also led a group of baritone players), John Surman, Scott Robinson, James Carter, Stephen "Doc" Kupkaof the band " Tower of Power", Nick Brignola, Stefan Zeniuk, Gary Smulyan, Ronnie Cuber, Frank Vacin and Claire Daly. In the avant-garde scene, Andy Lasterand Tim Bernehave doubled on bari. A Noted Scottish performer is Joe Temperley, who has appeared with Humphrey Lytteltonas well as with the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra. Atsushi Yanaka, the baritone saxophonist of the Japanese group Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, is widely regarded as the best baritone saxophone player in skamusic.Fact|date=March 2007 The Baritone Saxophone Band, a tribute to Gerry Mulligan, featured three baritone saxophonists: Ronnie Cuber, Gary Smulyan, and Nick Brignola. [http://youtube.com/watch?v=oHvFcVMBh1w video]
The bari sax has become a more commonly seen instrument in
punk skaand third wave skabands including Streetlight Manifesto, Less Than Jake, Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, and Bandits Of The Acoustic Revolution. The sax is popular for its lower register notes, however, the size and bulk of the instrument, along with the cost, can prevent many bands from using it.
* [http://www.jazzbarisax.com Great Jazz Baritone Saxophonists and vintage horns]
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