name = Bovinae
fossil_range = Miocene to Recent

image_width = 240px
image_caption = water buffalo
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
ordo = Artiodactyla
familia = Bovidae
subfamilia = Bovinae
subfamilia_authority = Gray, 1821
subdivision_ranks = Tribes
subdivision =


The biological subfamily bovines includes a diverse group of 10 species of medium to large sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. The evolutionary relationship between the members of the group is obscure, and their classification into loose tribes rather than formal sub-groups reflects this uncertainty. General characteristics include a cloven hoof and usually at least one of the sexes of a species having a true horn.

In most countries, bovines are used for food. Cows are eaten almost everywhere except most parts of India, where bovines are considered sacred by Hindus.

ystematics and Classification

** Subfamily Bovinae
*** Tribe Boselaphini
**** Genus "Tetracerus"
*****Four-horned Antelope, "Tetracerus quadricornis"
**** Genus "Boselaphus"
*****Nilgai or blue bull, "Boselaphus tragocamelus" (not to be confused with the extinct Bluebuck "Hippotragus leucophaeus", Hippotraginae)
*** Tribe Bovini
**** Genus "Bubalus"
***** Domestic Asian Water buffalo, "Bubalus bubalus"
***** Wild Asian Water buffalo, "Bubalus Arnee"
***** Lowland Anoa, "Bubalus depressicornis"
***** Mountain Anoa, "Bubalus quarlesi"
***** Tamaraw, "Bubalus mindorensis"
**** Genus "Bos"
***** Aurochs, "Bos primigenius" (extinct)
***** Banteng, "Bos javanicus"
***** Gaur, "Bos gaurus"
***** Gayal, "Bos frontalis" (domestic gaur)
***** Yak, "Bos mutus"
***** Domestic Cattle, "Bos taurus" (increasingly considered a subspecies of "Bos primigenius")
***** Kouprey, "Bos sauveli"
**** Genus "Pseudonovibos"
***** Kting Voar, "Pseudonovibos spiralis"
**** Genus "Pseudoryx"
***** Saola, "Pseudoryx nghetinhensis"
**** Genus "Syncerus"
***** African Buffalo, "Syncerus caffer"
**** Genus "Bison"
***** American Bison, "Bison bison"
***** Wisent, "Bison bonasus"
***** Steppe Wisent, "Bison priscus" (extinct)
*** Tribe Strepsicerotini
**** Genus "Tragelaphus" (antelope-like)
***** Sitatunga, "Tragelaphus spekeii"
***** Nyala, "Tragelaphus angasii"
***** Bushbuck, "Tragelaphus scriptus"
***** Mountain Nyala "Tragelaphus buxtoni"
***** Lesser Kudu, "Tragelaphus imberbis"
***** Greater Kudu, "Tragelaphus strepsiceros"
***** Bongo, "Tragelaphus eurycerus"
**** Genus "Taurotragus"
***** Common Eland, "Taurotragus oryx"
***** Giant Eland, "Taurotragus derbianus"


Bovine is derived from Latin bos, "ox", through Late Latin bovinus.


* International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17ΔбГ specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84.


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