Etruria — usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia — was a region of
Central Italy, [http://member.melbpc.org.au/~tmajlath/etruria.jpglocated in] an area that covered part of what now are Tuscany, Latium, Emilia-Romagnaand Umbria. A particularly noteworthy work dealing with Etruscan locations is D. H. Lawrence's " Sketches of Etruscan Places and other Italian essays".
The ancient people of Etruria are labelled Etruscans and their complex culture was centered on numerous city-states that rose during the
Villanovanperiod in the ninth century BC and were very powerful during the Orientalizingand Archaic periods. The Etruscans were a dominant culture in Italy by 650 BC, surpassing other ancient Italic peoples such as the Ligurians, and their influence may be seen beyond Etruria's confines in the Po RiverValley and Latium, as well as in Campaniaand through their contact with the Greek colonies in Southern Italy(including Sicily). Indeed, at some Etruscan tombs, such at those of the Tumulus di Montefortiniat Comeana (see Carmignano) in Tuscany, physical evidence of trade has been found in the form of grave goods — fine faienceware cups are particularly notable examples. Such trade occurred either directly with Egypt, or through intermediaries such as Greek or Etruscan sailors.
Rome was influenced strongly by the Etruscans, with a series of Etruscan kings ruling at
Romeuntil 509 BC when the last Etruscan king Lucius Tarquinius Superbuswas removed from power and the Roman Republicwas established. The Etruscans are credited with influencing Rome's architecture and ritual practice; it was under the Etruscan kings that important structures such as the Capitolium, Cloaca Maximaand Via Sacrawere realized.
Etruscan civilizationwas responsible for much of the Greek culture imported into early Republican Rome, including the twelve Olympian gods, the growing of olives and grapes, the Latin alphabet(adapted from the Greek alphabet), and architecturelike the arch, sewerageand drainagesystems.
The classical name "Etruria" was revived in the early 19th century, applied to the
Kingdom of Etruria, an ephemeral creation of Napoleon I of Francein Tuscanywhich existed from 1801to 1807.
* Caisra (
* Curtun (
* Felathri (Volaterrae or modern
* Fufluna (Pupluna,
LatinPopulonium, or modern Populonia)
* Tarchna or Tarchuna (Volscian Anxur, Latin Tarracina, or modern
Tarquinia(Tarchnal, Latin Tarquinii)
* Vetluna or Vatluna (Latin Vetulonium or modern
:"See also: "
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/_Periods/Roman/Archaic/Etruscan/_Texts/DENETR*/home.html Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria] , by
George Dennis, an overview of Etruscan civilisation
* [http://xoomer.alice.it/asciatopo/etruria.html Toponymy of Etruria]
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