Ford F-Series

Ford F-Series

Infobox Automobile
name=Ford F-Series


manufacturer=Ford Motor Company
production=1948–present
successor=Ford Super Duty (F-250 & F-350)
class=Full-size pickup truck
layout=Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
"For the 1999-present F-250 and higher models, see Ford Super Duty."

The F-Series is a series of full-size pickup trucks from Ford Motor Company sold for over five decades. The most popular variant of the F-Series is the F-150. It was the best-selling vehicle in the United States for 23 years and has been the best-selling truck for 31 years [cite journal
url = http://www.trucktrend.com/features/news/2007/163_news070524_2008_ford_trucks_features
title = Ford's Best Selling Pickups Add More Features For 2008
journal = Truck Trend
publisher = Auto News
date = 2007-05-25
author = Ford Motor Company
] , though this does not include combined sales of GM pickup trucks. [cite web
url = http://www.pickuptruck.com/html/autoshows/naias2006/gmc/interview1.html
publisher = Pickuptruck.com
title = Interview with GMC Sierra Brand Manager Lorraine Babiar
first = Mike
last = Magda
date = 2006-02-05
] Analysts estimate that the F-Series alone makes up half of the Ford Motor Company's profits in recent years. In the 10th generation of the F-series, Ford split the F-150 & F-250/350 into two different body styles. The new F-250/F-350 and as of 2007 F-450 is called the Super Duty.

First generation (1948–1952)

Infobox Automobile generation
name=First generation
body_style=2-door pickup


production=1948–1952
assembly=Dearborn, Michigan, USA
Edison, New Jersey, USA
Long Beach, California, USA
Norfolk, Virginia, USA
St. Paul, Minnesota, USA
St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Hapeville, Georgia, USA
Highland Park, Michigan, USA
transmission=3-speed manual
4-speed manual
5-speed manual
engine=Auto CID|226 Straight-6
Auto CID|239 Flathead V8
Auto CID|254 Straight-6
Auto CID|337 Flathead V8
Auto CID|215 Straight-6
Auto CID|279 Y-block V8
Auto CID|317 Y-block V8
The first F-Series truck (known as the Ford Bonus-Built) from Ford was introduced in 1948, replacing the company's previous car-based pickup line. It was a modern-looking truck with a flat, one-piece windshield and integrated headlights. Options were the "See-Clear" windshield washer (operated by foot plunger), passenger side windshield wiper & sun visor, and passenger side taillight. The F-1 truck was also available with additional chrome and two horns as an option. All F-series were available in "Marmon-Herrington All Wheel Drive" until 1959.

Design of the F-Series truck changed little from 1948 to 1952. From 1948-1950, the grill was a series of horizontal bars and the headlights were set into the fenders. For 1951 and 1952, the headlights were connected by a wide aerodynamic cross piece with three similarly aerodynamic supports. The rear window was wider in the later trucks and the dashboard was redesigned.

F-series trucks were built at sixteen different Ford plants. Serial numbers indicate the truck model, engine, year, assembly plant, and unit number. The most common model was the F-1 with a 6 ½-foot bed followed by the F-2 and F-3 Express models with an convert|8|ft|m|sing=on bed.

The models are:

* F-1: 1/2 ton (4,700 GVWR max)
* F-2: 3/4 ton (5,700 GVWR max)
* F-3: Heavy Duty 3/4 ton (6,800 GVWR max)
* F-3: Parcel Delivery (7,000 GVWR max) & optional rear spring pkg (7,800 GVWR max)
* F-4: 1 ton (7,500 GVWR max) & optional 1 1/4 ton pkg (10,000 GVWR max)
* F-5: 1 1/2 ton: Conventional, school bus, and cab over engine (C.O.E.) (10,000-14,500 GVWR)
* F-6: 2 ton: Conventional, school bus, and C.O.E. (14,000-16,000 GVWR)
* F-7: Conventional (17,000-19,000 GVWR)
* F-8: Conventional (20,000-22,000 GVWR)

Engines:

Fourth generation (1961–1966)

Infobox Automobile generation
name=Fourth generation
production=1961–1966
body_style=2-door pickup
4-door pickup
assembly=Cuautitlan, Mexico
Dearborn, Michigan, USA
Edison, New Jersey, USA
Kansas City, Missouri, USA
Long Beach, California, USA
Norfolk, Virginia, USA
St. Paul, Minnesota, USA
St. Louis, Missouri, USA
General Pacheco, Argentina
Sao Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Hapeville, Georgia, USA
Louisville, Kentucky, USA
San Jose, California, USA
Wayne, Michigan, USA
Lorain, Ohio, USA
Oakville, Ontario, Canada


engine=nowrap|223 CID (3.7 L) I6
nowrap|292 CID (4.8 L) "Y-block" V8
nowrap|240 CID (3.9 L) I6
nowrap|300 CID (4.9 L) I6
nowrap|352 CID (5.8 L) "FE" V8
The truck was completely redesigned for 1961 with a wider look, and "unibody" trucks were built with an integrated cab and box from 1961-63. 1964 saw a return to the traditional separate cab and bed arrangement. Power was over Convert|200|hp|kW|-1|abbr=on with the 1965 update of the powertrain. In 1965, the Twin I-Beam front suspension was introduced with coil springs. The 1965 and 1966 trucks have a "TWIN I-BEAM" emblem on the front fender. A 4-door crew cab version was also introduced in 1965, still a popular option. Ford still offered a "Low GVWR" version of each model.

The Camper Special was built heavier for the slide in campers that were becoming increasingly popular during this time.

In 1965, the name "Ranger" is first introduced as a styling package for the F-Series pickup trucks. Then later (1981) the name Ranger is used for Ford's compact series trucks; a non F-Series American competition for the foreign truck market at the time.

In 1965, the 300-cubic inch (4.9 L) Straight-6 was introduced. It had 7 main bearings and timing gears (no chain or belt).

"Models:"'

* F-100 (F10, F11, F14): 1/2 ton (4,000-5,000 GVWR max)
* F-100 (F18, F19)(4X4): 1/2 ton (4,000-5,600 GVWR max)
* F-250 (F25): 3/4 ton (7,400 GVWR max)
* F-250 (F26)(4X4): 3/4 ton (4,900 GVWR max)
* F-350 (F35): 1 ton (9,800 GVWR max)

Engines:

Seventh generation (1980–1986)

Infobox Automobile generation
name=Seventh generation
body_style=2-door pickup
4-door pickup
production=1980–1986
assembly=Cuautitlan, Mexico
Dearborn, Michigan, USA
Edison, New Jersey, USA
Kansas City, Missouri, USA
Norfolk, Virginia, USA
St. Paul, Minnesota, USA
General Pacheco, Argentina
Louisville, Kentucky, USA
Wayne, Michigan, USA
Oakville, Ontario, Canada


engine=300 CID (4.9 L) I6
302 CID (5.0 L) "Windsor" V8}
351 CID (5.8 L) "Windsor" V8
400 CID (6.6 L) "335" V8
460 CID (7.5 L) "385" V8
6.9 L (420 CID) Diesel V8

The next major redesign came in 1980. The new truck had a squarer look, with sharp lines and flat panels. It was also the Ford's first use of an independent front suspension on 4X4 models. The Ranger trim line was dropped from the F-Series in 1982, since that name was to be applied to the new Ford Ranger compact pickup, which replaced the Ford Courier mini-pickup line. Trim options became XL, XLS, XLT, and XLT Lariat. In 1982 the "F-O-R-D" letters were removed from the hood and a blue oval logo appeared on the grille.

The big-block 460 CID V8 was dropped for 1980, but returned in 1983 along with the 6.9 L V8 diesel option. In 1982, the 335-series "Cleveland" V8s were discontinued. The 351M was replaced by the 351 Windsor (an older design that now made its debut in light trucks), while the 400 vanished altogether (Ford's competitors had ceased selling engines in that size range a few years before). The 5.0 L V8 switched over to fuel injection, first as an option in 1985 and then altogether in 1986.

The new Essex V6 was added in 1982, but dropped after 1983 and the 300 inline six continued as the standard engine through the series. A work truck package called "6+6" was available, pairing the 300 CID inline six with the C6 transmission.dubiousfact|date=September 2008 These were also the last American vehicles to have a column-mounted manual transmission.

The F-100 was dropped as the base model at the end of 1983 and the now-familiar F-150 took its place as the base model F-Series truck for 1984. This generation also saw extensive use of galvanized body panels to fight corrosion which is now gaining them popularity among restorers.Fact|date=July 2008

The various changes that occurred between the 1981 and 1982 model years were accompanied by a slight cosmetic change- 1980-81 trucks have a plain grille with "FORD" spelled across the front of the hood in chrome letters, similar to the previous generation. 1982-86 models had the letters removed, and a Ford oval placed in the center of the grille. This made the 1982 the first model year to feature a blue oval on the front, something that has been on every model that followed it. [Photo of an early model at [http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/1980-1989-ford-trucks-6.jpgHowStuffWorks.com] ]

This generation saw two different sets of trim levels:

In 1980 and 1981, there was:
*Custom- Base model with manual locks/windows, vinyl seat, and black rubber floor mat.
*Ranger- Intermediate trim that added a color-keyed floor mat, extra chrome, and woodtone dash trim.
*Ranger XLT- A step up from the Ranger that added better seat trim, a color-keyed headliner, color-keyed carpeting, aluminum tailgate trim and optional power windows/locks.
*Ranger Lariat- a step above the XLT that added a plusher interior.

For 1982-1986:
*Base - basically the same as the Custom of the previous years.
*XL - replaced the intermediate Ranger trim for 1982 as the Ranger name would be used for Ford's new compact truck.
*XLS- a new trim level that featured a blacked-out grille, bumpers, headlight bezels, and windshield trim. It also featured a stripe graphics package and black and silver dash trim. Available exterior colors were red, silver, and black.
*XLT Lariat- featured floor carpeting, color-keyed headliner, a standard chrome grille, and optional power windows/door locks. In 1985 the tailgate trim was changed to a "flat" full width aluminum with a red "reflector" towards the bottom with chrome FORD letters.

This generation of Ford trucks are latest to become popular restoration projects as most of these trucks are becoming emissions exempt in most states and now old enough to be registered as classics or antiques.

In Mexico, there is an "F-200" which was introduced in 1976. This variant remained until 1991.

Engines:The 7.5 L and diesel engines were not available on the F-150, and the 4.9 L and 5.0 L were not available on the F-350 or F-450.

Tenth generation (1997–2003)

Infobox Automobile generation
name=Tenth generation


production=1997–2003
related=Lincoln Blackwood
assembly=Cuautitlan, Mexico
Kansas City, Missouri, USA
Norfolk, Virginia, USA
Sao Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Louisville, Kentucky, USA
Oakville, Ontario, Canada
engine=4.2 L (256 CID) Essex V6
4.6 L (281 CID) Triton V8
5.4 L (330 CID) Triton V8
body_style=2-door pickup
3-door pickup
4-door pickup
platform=Ford P platform
aka=Ford Lobo (Mexico)
transmission=4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
wheelbase= convert|119.9|in|mm|0|abbr=on
convert|138.5|in|mm|0|abbr=on
convert|157.1|in|mm|0|abbr=on
length= convert|202.2|in|mm|0|abbr=on
convert|220.8|in|mm|0|abbr=on
convert|225.9|in|mm|0|abbr=on
convert|239.4|in|mm|0|abbr=on
width= convert|78.4|in|mm|0|abbr=on
convert|79.1|in|mm|0|abbr=on (Crew Cab)

Ford took the aero styling further for 1997 with a rounded nose on the new F-series. The regular F-250 (light duty) was basically an F-150 with the same body panels but with heavy duty axles and suspension, along with 7 lug wheels. Additionally, the F-250 Light Duty also offered a load leveling rear suspension system. The F-250 HD (Heavy Duty) was in the same series as the F-350. With the arrival of the all new 1999 "Super Duty" series in early 1998, the standard F-250 ('light duty'), F-250HD (Heavy Duty), & F-350 line was totally dropped and the F-250 (light duty) was offered as the "7700" package for the F-150 (noted on the tailgate emblem).

Completely new, more efficient engines were offered beginning in 1997. The 4.2 L OHV V6 replaced the 4.9 L OHV I6, and the 4.6 L SOHC and 5.4 L SOHC, which were named "Triton" for the first time, replaced the 5.0 L OHV, 5.8 L OHV, and 7.5 L OHV. It marks the introduction of Ford's V8 Modular Single Overhead Cam (SOHC) engines.

A wide variety of body options were available: regular cab and SuperCab, standard or flareside boxes, and short and long beds. A new Lightning was introduced in 1999, and Harley-Davidson and King Ranch versions were also created. In 2001 the SuperCrew cab was introduced with four full-size doors. In 2002, an FX4 model was introduced which came with skid plates, Rancho shock absorbers, and specific 17" aluminum wheels along with more standard features that were optional on XLT. In 2003, a sporty STX trim package was introduced, aimed at younger truck buyers. The STX package featured color keyed front/rear bumpers along with clear lens headlights and integrated round fog lamps. The package also featured chrome step rails, 17" chrome wheels, and a Kenwood Z828 stereo was installed in place of the standard Ford radio.

This generation F-150 received an overall poor rating by the IIHS in the frontal offset test. [ [http://www.iihs.org/ratings/rating.aspx?id=7 IIHS-HLDI: Ford F-150 ] ]

Sales of the F-150 surged in the tenth generation to 750,000 to over 900,000 in 2001 as the General Motors and Dodge products lagged. Ford's sales dropped, however, for the final years of this generation as the redesigned Dodge trucks were released.

The new F-150 was "Motor Trend" magazine's Truck of the Year for 1997 [cite web |url=http://www.motortrend.com/oftheyear/truck/truck_of_the_year_winners/index.html |title=Truck of the Year Winners List |work=Motor Trend] . The grille was updated in 1999 and the SuperCrew was added to the lineup in 2001. Ford manufactured a limited run of "Heritage Edition" F-150s of this body style in 2004 (as 2004 model years) to finish out production. This truck, with an updated grille, is still available in Mexico as a less-expensive alternative to the current trucks.

Ford has found that the cruise control system in many of their trucks could catch fire, because the switch system could corrode over time, overheat and ignite. Ignition was later blamed on spillage from the adjacent master cylinder. On March 5, 2007 Ford recalled 155,000 2003 full-size pickups and full-size SUVs for the defective part. During the previous two years Ford had recalled 5.8 million vehicles in because of the defective cruise control systems in trucks, SUVs and vans. That recall, one of the largest in history, covered vehicles from the 1994-2002 model years. [ [http://www.lemonauto.com/complaints/ford/ford_f150.htm Ford F150 Recall Information - Ford Recalls & Problems ] ]

Engines:

Ford originally planned to reintroduce F-100, known internally as P525, as global replacement for Ford Ranger in 2010 or 2011 [ [http://www.autoblog.com/2008/06/02/ford-planning-f100-and-global-ranger-replacement/ Ford planning F-100 and global Ranger replacement] ] , but the plan was cancelled, instead offering EcoBoost engines for F-150. [ [http://blogs.edmunds.com/straightline/2008/08/ford-tables-plans-for-f-100-pickup.html Ford tables plans for F-100 pickup] ]

Electric and hybrids

Ford will supply Smith Electric Vehicles with a range of its Ford F-Series commercial vehicles as the chassis for Smith's US-specific vehicles. The first of these vehicles is the Faraday mark II, built using the Ford F650 chassis cab, with a gross vehicle weight (GVW) of up to convert|13000|kg|abbr=on. It manufactures the first of this product in the second half of 2008. [ [http://www.smithelectricvehicles.com/newsevents_news.asp?p=n&itemid=204 Smith Electric Vehicles - News ] ]

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies (HEVT), Inc. [http://www.hevt.com] unveiled a plug-in hybrid prototype at 2008 Plug-In Conference and Exposition. [cite web|url=http://jalopnik.com/399208/hev-technology-builds-41-mpg-plug+in-hybrid-ford-f+150-pickup-truck |title=HEV Technology Builds 41 MPG Plug-In Hybrid Ford F-150 Pickup Truck]

Notes

* Ford also manufactures F-Series medium-duty trucks (F-650, F-750). School bus chassis versions are sold as B-Series trucks. The 1961-1965 Ford Falcon Econoline flat nose pickup trucks and 1961-present vans are E-Series. Parcel delivery vans are P-Series. Big tractor trailer trucks are L-Series. There was also a class 8 cab over called the W-Series in the 60's-70's, replaced by the CL-Series in 1977.

* In Argentina and Brazil, the gasoline engines came prepared from the factory with slight modifications to also use them with alternative fuels, E-85 (Ethanol) and CNG (Compressed Natural Gas). Biodiesel also is used in diesel engines.

* Prior to the F-650 and F-750 medium-duty trucks, Ford offered F-700, F-800 and F-900 medium-duty trucks that retained the door and aft cab (A-pillar back) style and structure from the previous generation F-Series, along with the dash and instrument cluster (from early 1980s models). Current models are based on the International 4000 Series chassis with a Ford Super Duty cab.

* A F-8000 was also produced based on the Ford Cargo cab-over range, which was similar to the 2006 and newer Ford LCF ("Low Cab Forward").

Footnotes

References

*

Chassis and model spec for 1957-1979 from Ford Master Parts Catalog

See also

* Ford Super Duty
* Ford F-650

External links

* [http://www.fordvehicles.com/trucks/ Official site]
*
* [http://www.fordvehicles.com/thetruthabouttrucks/ The Truth About Trucks]


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