- Interactive music
Interactive music also known as nonlinear music or adaptive music, is synonymous with
soundtracks to interactive mediaand in particular computer games.
Recently there has become an increasing trend away from detached
linearscores similar to those found in the linear narratives of film, in favor of advanced, carefully designed audio, more tightly integrated with the gameplay in today’s interactive entertainmenttitles. We are now at the stage where a musical score is able to adapt in real-time to what is happening in a game.
The music in a game is able to
adaptto a user's movements through a storyline using two techniques. Horizontalre- sequencingis the method by which pre-composed segments of music can be re-shuffled according to a players’ choice of where they go in the storyline or environment. Vertical re- orchestrationis the technique of changing the mix of separate parts of an on-going loop, relative to a players movement within the narrative of a game. Recent games such as Bungie Studios' Halo 2 (2005) employ a mixture of these techniques to create their tightly integrated soundtracks.
In the context of performance, interactive music indicates
performer/ composerto computerinteraction, while in the past it most often specified performer to audienceinteraction. According to composer Todd Winkler(2001), interactive music is "a music compositionor improvisationwhere softwareinterprets a live performance to affect music generated or modified by computers," however, as he also points out, all music is "interactive" to a certain extent. At one end of a spectrum he puts a conductor led large ensemble such as in Romantic era classical music, and on the other free jazz, he suggests examining examples of musicianto musician interaction as potential models for computer to musician interaction. Don Buchladesigns many electronic and virtual instruments which are used in interactive music.
Interactive music as a self-contained work of art, made viable with the advent of multi-channel, multimedia PCs and delivered on CD-ROM, was pioneered by UK artists,
Modified. The release of " FreQuency" in 1996 and " Chillas" in 1997, both authored with Macromedia's Director, gave users realtime facilities to mix hundreds of samples within an 8-track virtual studio space. Besides offering non-linear musical compositions, these titles also featured generative algorithms acting as seeding elements to produce never-ending mixes of the onboard audio samples. Despite wide critical acclaim, Modifiedceased creative output in 2000 and although rumours abound of a new interactive DVD release, no new titles have been forthcoming.
Another collective of artists that was very active in the field of Interactive Music in the mid to late 90s was
AudioRom. They produced work that included CD-Roms (beta1, ShiftControl and V-Seq), installations (Trigger Happy, Big Bevelled Button and Hyper Peppy) and online collaborative performances (o and e). They were critically acclaimed, winning a British Academy Award (BAFTA) in October 1998. Nintendoreleased " Electroplankton" in 2005for the Nintendo DS. In it the player is able to generate unique compositions using planktonlike creatures, each being a type of "instrument".
*O’Donnell, M, (2002) ‘Producing Audio for Halo’ http://halo.bungie.org/misc/gdc.2002.music/
*Lieberman, David 2006. "Game Enhanced Music Manuscript." In GRAPHITE '06: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Australasia and South East Asia, ACM Press, Melbourne, Australia, 245 - 250. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1174472
*Winkler, Todd (2001, 1998). "Composing Interactive Music: Techniques and Ideas Using Max". Cambridge: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23193-X.
music video game
*http://www.tronme.com TronMe - Interactive music & video player
*http://vispo.com/misc/ia.htm is a page of links to online works of interactive audio and essays about it.
* [http://www.zingman.com/spew/CompIntMusic.html On Composing Interactive Music] by John Szinger, 1996
* [http://www.zvlivemix.com] http://www.zvlivemix.com
* [http://www.bostonphoenix.com/boston/news_features/other_stories/multi-page/documents/04242233.asp Interactive Music Players: Can They Change the Way We Listen to Music?] Boston Phoenix, 2004
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