Penning ionization

Penning ionization

Penning ionization is a form of chemi-ionization, an ionization process involving reactions between neutral atoms and/or molecules. [Penning, F. M. "Die Naturwissenschaften", 1927, 15, 818. "Über Ionisation durch metastabile Atome."] cite journal |author=Arango CA, Shapiro M, Brumer P |title=Cold atomic collisions: coherent control of penning and associative ionization |journal=Phys. Rev. Lett. |volume=97 |issue=19 |pages=193202 |year=2006 |pmid=17155624 |doi=] cite journal |author=Hiraoka K, Furuya H, Kambara S, Suzuki S, Hashimoto Y, Takamizawa A |title=Atmospheric-pressure Penning ionization of aliphatic hydrocarbons |journal=Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. |volume=20 |issue=21 |pages=3213–22 |year=2006 |pmid=17016831 |doi=10.1002/rcm.2706] The term "Penning ionization" refers to the interaction between a gas-phase excited-state atom or molecule G* and a target molecule M resulting in the formation of a radical molecular cation M+., an electron e, and a neutral gas molecule G.


:G^* + M o M^{+ullet} + e^- + G

Associative Penning ionization can occur:

:G^* + M o MG^{+ullet} + e^-

Surface Penning ionization refers to the interaction of the excited-state gas with a surface S, resulting in the release of an electron.

:G^* + S o G + S + e^-

(The positive charge symbol S^+ that would appear to be required for charge conservation is omitted, because S is a macroscopic surface and the loss of one electron has a negligible effect.)

Penning ionization occurs when the target molecule has an ionization potential lower than the internal energy of the excited-state atom or molecule. The process was first reported by F. M. Penning in 1927.

ee also

*Chemical ionization


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