- Sea of Galilee
) or "Sea of Gennesaret" ["Complete Gospels", Robert J. Miller editor, 1992, translation note to Mark 4:35-41: "...Mark calls this lake the "sea", using a word ("thalassa") that most Greek writers reserve for the much larger Mediterranean (Luke uses the more proper term for a lake, "limne", in Luke 5:1; 8:22-23, 33. ..."] , after a small fertile plain that lies on its western side. The Arabic name for the lake is Audio|ArTiberias.ogg|"Buhairet Tabariyya" (بحيرة طبريا) meaning "Lake Tiberias". Other names for the Sea of Galilee are "Ginnosar", "Lake of Gennesar", "Sea of Chinneroth" and "Sea of Tiberias" (Roman).
The Sea of Galilee lies on the ancient
Via Mariswhich linked Egyptwith the northern empires. The Greeks, Hasmoneans, and Romans founded flourishing towns and settlements on the lake including Gadara, Hipposand Tiberias. The first-century historian Flavius Josephuswas so impressed by the area that he wrote, "One may call this place the ambition of Nature." Josephus also reported a thriving fishing industry at this time, with 230 boats regularly working in the lake.
Much of the
ministry of Jesusoccurred on the shores of Lake Galilee. In those days, there was a continuous ribbon development of settlements and villages around the lake and plenty of trade and ferrying by boat. The Synoptic gospels of Mark (1:14-20), Matthew (4:18-22), and Luke (5:1-11) describe how Jesus recruited four of his apostles from the shores of Lake Galilee: the fishermen Simon and his brother Andrew and the brothers John and James. One of Jesus' famous teaching episodes, the Sermon on the Mount, was given on a hill overlooking the lake while many of his miracles were also recorded to occur here including his walking on water, calming a storm, and his feeding five thousand people (in Tabgha).
In 135 CE the second Jewish revolt against the Romans was put down. The Romans responded by banning all Jews from
Jerusalem. The center of Jewish culture and learning shifted to the region of the Kinneret, particularly the city of Tiberias. It was in this region that the so-called " Jerusalem Talmud" is thought to have been compiled.
In the time of the
Byzantine Empire, the lake's significance in Jesus' life made it a major destination for Christian pilgrims. This led to the growth of a full-fledged touristindustry, complete with package tours and plenty of comfortable inns.
The lake's importance declined when the Byzantines lost control and area came under the control of the
Umayyad Caliphateand subsequent Islamic empires. Apart from Tiberias, the major towns and cities in the area were gradually abandoned. In 1187, Saladindefeated the armies of the Crusadesat the Battle of Hattin, largely because he was able to cut the Crusaders off from the valuable fresh water of the Sea of Galilee.
In 1909 Jewish pioneers built their first cooperative farming village (
kibbutz), Kvutzat Kinneretwhich trained Jewish immigrants in farming and agriculture. Later, Kinneret pioneers established Kibbutz Degania. It was fitting, therefore, that the Kinneret was the cradle of the Kibbutz culture of early Zionismand the birthplace of Naomi Shemerand the burial site of Rachel - two of the most prominent Israeli poets.
[http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/palmanda.htm The Preamble of the League of Nations Mandate] required the Principal Allied Powers to fix the boundaries. In 1923 an agreement between the
United Kingdomand Franceestablished the border between the British Mandate of Palestineand the French Mandate of Syria. The British handed over the southern Golan Heightsto the French in return for the northern Jordan Valley. The border was re-drawn so that both sides of the Jordan Riverand the whole of the Sea of Galilee, including a 10-metre wide strip along the northeastern shore, were made a part of Palestine [ [http://www.caabu.org/press/focus/gee.html CAABU :: The Council for Arab-British Understanding ] ] with the following provisoes:
*Any existing rights over the use of the waters of the Jordan by the inhabitants of Syria shall be maintained unimpaired.
*The Government of Syria shall have the right to erect a new pier at Semakh on Lake Tiberias or to have joint use of the existing pier
*Persons or goods passing between the existing landing-stage or any future landing-stages on the Lake of Tiberias and Semakh Station shall not by reason of the mere fact that they must cross the territory of Palestine be deemed persons or goods entering Palestine for the purpose of Customs or other regulations, and the right of the Syrian Government and their agents to access to the said landing-stages is recognised.
*The inhabitants of Syria and of the Lebanon shall have the same fishing and navigation rights on Lakes Huleh and Tiberias and on the River Jordan between the said lakes as the inhabitants of Palestine, but the Government of Palestine shall be responsible for the policing of the lakes. [No. 565. — EXCHANGE OF NOTES * CONSTITUTING AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE BRITISH AND FRENCH GOVERNMENTS RESPECTING THE BOUNDARY LINE BETWEEN SYRIA AND PALESTINE FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN TO EL HAMMÉ, PARIS MARCH 7, 1923, Page 7 [http://untreaty.un.org/unts/60001_120000/20/29/00039450.pdf Border Treaty] ] Israel's National Water Carrier, built in 1964, transports water from the lake to the population centers of Israel, and is the source of much of the country's drinking water. Israel also supplies water from the lake to
Jordan(under the terms of the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace). Increasing water demand and some dry winters have resulted in stress on the lake and a decreasing water line, at times to dangerously low levels.
Today, tourism is again the Kinneret's most important economic activity with the entire region being a popular holiday destination. The many historical and spiritual sites around the lake, especially its main town Tiberias, are visited by millions of local and foreign tourists annually. Other economic activities include fishing in the lake and agriculture, particularly
bananas, in the fertile belt of land surrounding it.
A key attraction is the site where the Kinneret's water flows into the Jordan River to which thousands of pilgrims from all over the world come to be (re-)baptized every year.
Fauna and flora
The warm waters of the Sea of Galilee allow a variety of flora and fauna to thrive, which have supported a significant commercial fishery for over two millennia. Local flora includes a variety of reeds along most of the shoreline as well as
Phytoplankton. Fauna includes Zooplanktonand Benthos, as well as a fish population which notably includes Tilapia(locally known as St. Peter’s Fish). [ [http://www.ilec.or.jp/database/asi/asi-09.html World Lakes Database entry for Sea of Galilee] ]
The Sea of Galilee Boat
* [http://www.ilec.or.jp/database/asi/asi-09.html World Lakes Database entry for Sea of Galilee]
* [http://www.bibleplaces.com/seagalilee.htm Bibleplaces.com: Sea of Galilee]
* [http://koti.phnet.fi/petripaavola/Bible_SeaofGalilee.html Sea of Galilee photos]
* [http://www.wilkens-art.com/galilee.htm Peace Mural of the Sea of Galilee in the Chapel of the Good Shephard - Ramallah]
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