- Surface science
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including
solid- liquidinterfaces, solid- gasinterfaces, solid- vacuuminterfaces, and liquid-gas interfaces. It includes the fields of surface chemistry and surface physics. [cite book | last=Prutton | first=Martin | title= "Introduction to Surface Physics"
publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1994 | id = ISBN 0198-53476-0 ] Some related practical applications are classed as
surface engineering. The science encompasses concepts such as heterogeneous catalysis, semiconductor device fabrication, fuel cells, self-assembled monolayers, and adhesives.Surface science is closely related to interface and colloid science. [cite book | last=Luklema | first=J. | title="Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science" | publisher=Academic Press | year=1995–2005 | volume=1–5 ] Interfacial chemistry and physics are common subjects for both. The methods are different. In addition, interface and colloid science studies macroscopic phenomenathat occur in heterogeneoussystems due to peculiarities of interfaces.
The field of surface chemistry started with
heterogeneous catalysispioneered by Paul Sabatier on hydrogenationand Fritz Haberon the Haber process.cite web | last=Wennerström | first=Håkan | coauthors= Lidin, Sven | title="Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007 Chemical Processes on Solid Surfaces" | url= http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2007/chemadv07.pdf | format = pdf ] Irving Langmuirwas also one of the founders of this field, and the scientific journal on surface science, "Langmuir", bears his name. The Langmuir adsorption equation is used to model monolayer adsorption where all surface adsorption sites have the same affinity for the adsorbing species. Gerhard Ertlin 1974 described for the first time the adsorption of hydrogenon a palladiumsurface using a novel technique called LEED. [cite journal | last=Conrad | first=H. | coauthors=Ertl, G.; Latta, E.E. | title=Adsorption of hydrogen on palladium single crystal surfaces | journal=Surface Science | volume=41 | isssue=2 | pages=435–446 | date=February 1974 | doi=10.1016/0039-6028(74)90060-0 ] Similar studies with platinum, [cite journal | last=Christmann | first=K. | coauthors=Ertl, G.; Pignet, T. | title=Adsorption of hydrogen on a Pt(111) surface | journal=Surface Science | volume=54 | issue=2 | pages=365–392 | date=February 1976 | year=1976 | doi=10.1016/0039-6028(76)90232-6] nickel, [cite journal | last=Christmann | first=K. | coauthors=Schober, O.; Ertl, G.; Neumann, M. | title=Adsorption of hydrogen on nickel single crystal surfaces | journal= The Journal of Chemical Physics| volume=60 | issue=11 | pages=4528–4540 | date=June 1, 1974 | doi=10.1063/1.1680935] [cite journal | last=Christmann | first=K. | coauthors=Behm, R. J.; Ertl, G.; Van Hove, M. A.; Weinberg, W. H. | title=Chemisorption geometry of hydrogen on Ni(111): Order and disorder | journal= The Journal of Chemical Physics| date=May 1, 1979 | volume=70 | issue=9 | pages=4168–4184 | doi=10.1063/1.438041] and iron[cite journal | last=Imbihl | first=R. |coauthors=Behm, R. J.; Christmann, K.; Ertl, G.; Matsushima, T. | title=Phase transitions of a two-dimensional chemisorbed system: H on Fe(110) | journal=Surface Science | volume=117 | date=May 2, 1982 | pages=257–266 | doi=10.1016/0039-6028(82)90506-4] followed. Most recent developments in surface sciences include the 2007 Nobel Prize of Chemistry winner Gerhard Ertl's advancements in surface chemistry, specifically his investigation of the interaction between carbon monoxide molecules and platinum surfaces.
Surface chemistry can be roughly defined as the study of chemical reactions at interfaces. It is closely related to
surface engineering, which aims at modifying the chemical composition of a surface by incorporation of selected elements or functional groups that produce various desired effects or improvements in the properties of the surface or interface. Surface chemistry also overlaps with electrochemistry. Surface science is of particular importance to the field of heterogeneous catalysis.
The adhesion of gas or liquid molecules to the surface is known as
adsorption. This can be due to either chemisorptionor by physisorption. These too are included in surface chemistry.
The behavior of a solution based interface is affected by the surface charge, dipoles, energies, and their distribution within the
electrical double layer.
Surface physics can be roughly defined as the study of physical changes that occur at interfaces. It overlaps with surface chemistry. Some of the things investigated by surface physics include
surface diffusion, surface reconstruction, surface phononsand plasmons, epitaxyand surface enhanced Raman scattering, the emission and tunneling of electrons, spintronics, and the self-assembly of nanostructures on surfaces.
The study and analysis of surfaces involves both physical and chemical analysis techniques.
Several modern methods probe the topmost 1–10 nm of the of
surfaces exposed to vacuum. These include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and other surface analysis methods included in the list of materials analysis methods. Many of these techniques require vacuum as they rely on the detection of electrons or ions emitted from the surface under study.
Purely optical techniques can be used to study interfaces under a wide variety of conditions. Reflection-absorption infrared, surface enhanced Raman, and sum frequency generation spectroscopies can be used to probe solid-vacuum as well as solid-gas, solid-liquid, and liquid-gas surfaces.
Modern physical analysis methods include scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) and a family of methods descended from it. Two of these are atomic force microscopy (AFM) and SPM. These microscopies have considerably increased the ability and desire of surface scientists to measure the physical structure of many surfaces. This increase is related to a more general interest in
*" [http://pubs.acs.org/journals/langd5/ Langmuir] ", a journal of the
American Chemical Society
* [http://www.yki.se The Institute for Surface Science]
* [http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/24 "Ram Rao Materials and Surface Science"] , a video from the Vega Science Trust
* [http://www.surfchem.net Surface Chemistry Discoveries]
* [http://www.uni-ulm.de/aok Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis Ulm University]
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