Timeline of Italian unification

Timeline of Italian unification

The Italian unification Timeline is as follows:

*1850- Garibaldi moves to New York City after the Pope takes control of Rome.
**August 24: Venice falls to Austrian forces that have crushed the rebellion in Venetia and other northern Italian states
*1852- November 4: Conte Camillo Benso di Cavour becomes Prime Minister of Sardinia
*1854- Garibaldi returns to Italy, settling on the island of Caprera
*1858- January 14: Felice Orsini attempts to assassinate Napoleon III, and in a letter from prison pleads for the emperor to help Italian nationalists
**Summer: Cavour meets with Napoleon III in Plombières, and planned war with Austria that would benefit France and Sardinia with land gains,
**Cavour then provoked revolutions in Lombardy to incite war with Austria
*1859- March: Sardinia battles with France against Austria
**June 4: French and Sardinian forces triumph over Austrian army affecting an Austrian withdrawal from Lombardy, later Austria retreats to Venetia
**July 11: Napoleon III meets with Franz Joseph (Austria) and backs out of the war. Among other land negotiations, Lombardy will be transferred to Sardinia
**November 10: Treaty of Zurich ends conflict in northern Italy for a time; Sardinia occupies some central Italian states
**December: Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and some other states join the United Provinces of Central Italy, and seek annexation by Sardinia
*1860- March 20: Sardinia annexes central Italian states by giving Nice and Savoy to the French, now only four states remain in Italy: Austrians in Venetia, the Papal States, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
**May 6: Garibaldi and about a thousand Italian volunteers leave Genoa, and on
**May 11: land near Marsala on the west coast of Sicily
**May 14: After many victories, Garibaldi names himself dictator of Sicily
**May 27: With British help Garibaldi seizes capital of Palermo
**September 7: After victories throughout Sicily and Italian mainland, Garibaldi is welcomed into Naples
**October : Victor Emmanuel II leads Sardinian forces through the Papal States south to meet Garibaldi in Naples, Garibaldi hands over his power to Victor Emmanuel II
**February 18: Victor Emmanuel II assumes title of King of Italy with an Italian parliament under him
**June 6: Camillo di Cavour dies after seeing his life’s work almost fulfilled, with only Venetia, and the Papal States not under Italian control
**June: Being frustrated with inaction against the Papal States, Garibaldi sails from Genoa to Palermo to gather volunteers for a Rome expedition
**August 14: Garibaldi sails for Melito on the southern coast of Italy and vows to march to Rome
**August 28: Garibaldi meets government troops at Aspromonte, and is honorably imprisoned, with his army being disbanded, however Garibaldi is soon released
*1864- September 15: Victor Emmanuel II meets with Napoleon III at the September Convention, Napoleon III agrees to withdraw French troops from the Papal States within 2 years
*1865- Capital moves from Turin to Florence
*1866- December: The last French troops depart from Rome
** June 20: Italy enters the Austro-Prussian war against Austria with Prussia promising Venetia if they win
**June 24: Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II are defeated at Custoza
**July 21: Italian forces under Garibaldi are victorious against Austria at Bezzecca, and move forward into Venetia
**July 26: Prussia signs armistice with Austria
**August 12: Italy ends war with Austria after Prussia signs armistice
**October 12: Emperor Franz Joseph cedes Venetia to Napoleon III for not entering the war, who then cedes it to Italy
*1867- October: Garibaldi seeks Rome and Papal States but fails, revolutions inside Rome are also suppressed
*1870- July: With the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war, Napoleon III calls back troops from Rome
**September 10: Victor Emmanual II sends Count Ponza di San Martino with a letter to the Pope proposing a peaceful entrance of the Italian army into, the Pope rejects the letter and the Count leaves the next day
**September 11: Italian Army slowly advances toward Rome
**September 20: Italian forces enter Rome with some casualties and, after a plebiscite, Rome is annexed by the Kingdom of Italy
*1871- June: The capital of the Kingdom of Italy is officially moved from Florence to Rome

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