The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial

The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial

"The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial" is a two-act play by Herman Wouk, which he adapted from his own novel, "The Caine Mutiny".

Wouk's novel covered a long stretch of time aboard the "USS Caine", a Navy minesweeper in the Pacific. It begins with Willis Keith's assignment to the "Caine", chronicles the mismanagement of the ship under Philip Francis Queeg, explains how Steve Maryk relieved Queeg of command, gives an account of Maryk's court-martial, and describes the aftermath of the mutiny for all involved.

The play covers only the court-martial itself. Like jurors at a trial, the audience knows only what various witnesses tell it of the events on the "Caine".

Production history

The play was first presented by Paul Gregory in the Granada Theatre, Santa Barbara, California, on October 12, 1953 and then went on tour across the United States before being given its first performance on Broadway at the Plymouth Theatre on 20 January, 1954 in a production directed by Charles Laughton, with Henry Fonda and John Hodiak. Lloyd Nolan played Queeg. It ran for 415 performances.

It was revived in 1983 at the Stamford Center for the Arts, Stamford, Connecticut and then at the Circle in the Square Theatre in a production directed by Arthur Sherman with John Rubinstein and Michael Moriarty, with Jay O. Sanders as Maryk. Former New York Jets quarterback Joe Namath replaced Sanders during the run of the show, marking his only appearance on Broadway.

Charlton Heston directed a critically acclaimed production in London in 1984 in which he starred as Queeg. Heston later brought the production to the Kennedy Center's Eisenhower Theater [ [ "BRIEFING; Cannes on the Potomac", by Wayne King and Irvin Molotsky, 6/12/86, The New York Times] ] , where it again garnered critical acclaim.

In 1988 Robert Altman directed a made-for-television version of "The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial" for CBS, with Eric Bogosian playing Barney Greenwald, and Brad Davis playing Philip Francis Queeg.

The play was again revived on Broadway in 2006 at the Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre in a production directed by Jerry Zaks, starring Zeljko Ivanek as Queeg, Timothy Daly as prosecutor Lt. Cmdr. John Challee and David Schwimmer as Greenwald.


* Steve Maryk: Queeg's second-in-command on the "Caine", and the officer who relieved Queeg of duty

* Barney Greenwald: Maryk's defense attorney

* Willis Keith: a junior officer on the "Caine"

* Lt. Commander Philip Francis Queeg: commanding officer of the "Caine"

* Tom Keefer: an erudite, educated junior officer on the "Caine"
* John Challee: the prosecutor

* Randolph Southard: a Navy captain, called as an expert witness

* Dr. Bird & Dr. Lundeen: a pair of psychiatrists called to testify about Queeg's mental fitness

* Junius Urban: a young signalman on the "Caine", called as a witness to the mutiny


The action takes place in The General Court-Martial Room of the Twelfth Naval District, San Francisco and in the banquet room of the Fairmont Hotel, San Francisco in February, 1945.

Act 1: The Prosecution

Maryk of the Naval Reserve is on trial for mutiny, because he relieved Lt. Commander Philip Francis Queeg of duty, as captain of the U.S.S. "Caine," during a typhoon on December 18, 1945. Maryk insists that Queeg was insane, and that his paranoid delusions were putting the ship in danger. Maryk took command, applying Article 184 of Navy Regulations, and steered the "Caine" directly INTO the storm--the opposite of what Queeg had wanted. The "Caine" and her entire crew survived, which Maryk thinks is proof that he acted appropriately.

Maryk's lawyer, Lt. Barney Greenwald, indicates that he thinks Maryk, whom he would much rather have prosecuted in the court-martial, was guilty. But he is determined to offer a strong defense nonetheless.

Philip Francis Queeg is the first witness for the prosecution, being conducted by Lt. Commander John Challee. Queeg states that, while the "Caine" was going through a typhoon, Steve Maryk, a disloyal and digruntled officer, rebelled against him and relieved him of command without justification.

At this stage of the court-martial, Queeg seems like a typical tough military disciplinarian--perhaps a bit too tough, but there is no good reason to believe he has psychological problems. He is confident and articulate, and seems to be in full possession of his faculties.

Young signalman Junius Urban, who was present on the bridge at the time Maryk took control, is called to testify about what happened. Urban provides comic relief, as he is extremely nervous and confused about exactly what happened. His testimony tells the jury very little, but on cross-examination he lets slip that Queeg was "a nut" on numerous small matters of discipline and tidiness.

Captain Randolph Southard, an experienced naval officer called as an expert on destroyer ship-handling, testifies that, under the weather circumstances described on the night of the mutiny, Queeg took all the proper measures, and did exactly what a commanding officer should have done. Thus, in Southard's view, Maryk's actions were completely unjustified. However, under cross examination from Greenwald, Southard concedes that there are rare, extreme circumstances under which sailing directly into the storm would be the only way to avoid sinking.

Two psychiatrists who have examined Queeg, Dr. Forrest Lundeen and Dr. Allen Bird, testify that, while Queeg is not an ideal officer (he can be arrogant, overly defensive, nervous, and a bit of a bully), he is not mentally ill. Under cross-examination from Greenwald, however, each of them, Dr. Lundeen in particular, acknowledges that some of Queeg's traits come close to the textbook definition of paranoia.

Willis Keith, a friend of Maryk's, testifies as to the events leading to the mutiny. Keith says that Queeg was a coward, that he was giving panicky, conflicting orders during the typhoon, requiring Maryk to take action. During cross-examination, Greenwald gets Keith to tell numerous stories of Queeg's ineptness, vanity, dishonesty, pettiness and seeming cowardice; indeed, one such incident led the "Caine's" officers to give Queeg the nickname "Old Yellowstain."

Lt. Thomas Keefer, another friend of Maryk's, is a much less helpful witness from the defense standpoint. Keefer, an intellectual who was a writer in civilian life, having published some of his short stories in national magazines, indicates that Queeg was not insane, and that Maryk was ill-advised to relieve him of command. Maryk is stunned by Keefer's betrayal, since to a large extent, Keefer was the one who convinced Maryk that Queeg might be insane in the first place, and Maryk wants Greenwald to cross-examine him vigorously. Instead, Greenwald has no questions for Keefer, explaining to Maryk, "Implicating Keefer harms you." He wants one hero, not two mutineers.

As the trial adjourns for the day, Maryk expresses dissatisfaction with Greenwald's defense. Greenwald explains that he has good reasons for not asking Keefer any questions, and states once again that he thinks Maryk is guilty. Even if Queeg was far from an ideal officer, Greenwald believes, Maryk's first duty was to carry on fighting the war, and doing his best to keep the Caine in action. All authority figures tend to look like irrational tyrants to their subordinates, Greenwald says, whether they are or not.

Act 2: The Defense

cene 1

As Greenwald begins his defense the following morning, he calls Steve Maryk as the first of his two witnesses.

Maryk explains in great detail what a petty, vindictive, isolated and paranoid commander Queeg was. In particular, Maryk dwells on "The Strawberry Incident," which convinced much of the crew that Queeg was insane. (The mess stewards on board the "Caine" had eaten some strawberries from the kitchen. When Queeg discovered that some of the strawberries were missing, he deduced that this was a repeat of a peacetime incident on another ship when cheese had been stolen, for the catching of whose thief he had earned a letter of commendation, and launched a full search of the ship for a secret duplicate pantry key that Queeg imagined the thief must have created. However, no such duplicate key had actually existed.) Finally, Maryk describes the events of the night of the mutiny itself. Maryk says the "Caine" was foundering, on the verge of sinking, and that Queeg was too frightened and paranoid to take the proper steps to save the ship. Only at this most desperate moment did Maryk see fit to take command. After the ship was out of danger, Maryk wrote a full account of his actions in the ship's log. He claims that Queeg came to him and proposed erasing this embarrassing incident from the log--a serious breach of Naval ethics. Maryk refused to do so, electing instead to take full responsibility for his actions.

The prosecuting attorney, Challee, asks Maryk about his background. Maryk answers that he is a fisherman's son, and has been around boats his whole life. However, Maryk confesses that he was only an average student in high school and a poor student in college. It becomes clear in Challee's cross-examination that, while Maryk uses words like "paranoid," he really knows little about psychology, and was not truly qualified to judge anyone's mental health.

At this point, Greenwald calls Queeg as his second and final defense witness. Under intense cross-examination, Queeg is asked to justify each and every one of his questionable actions as commanding officer of the "Caine." He becomes nervous and testy, and starts playing with a pair of steel balls that he uses to control his nerves. He tells a few small lies to cover up petty offenses. When his lies are revealed, his demeanor changes, and he becomes angry and combative. When asked about Maryk's charge that Queeg had wanted to alter the ship's log, an enraged Queeg rants that he was surrounded by disloyal officers, and looks exactly like the panicky paranoid that Maryk had described.

When the defense rests, Queeg is a broken man, and everyone else present knows that Maryk will be acquitted. Maryk is relieved if not totally ecstatic, and invites Greenwald to a celebration party that Tom Keefer is hosting later that evening. (Keefer has written a novel about the war, entitled "Multitudes, Multitudes," and even though it is still not finished, he has received a big advance from a publisher.) Greenwald looks dejected and far from triumphant, but he reluctantly agrees to attend the party.

cene 2

At the party, Keefer, Keith, Maryk and their friends are celebrating both Maryk's acquittal and the large advance that Keefer has received on "Multitudes, Multitudes," when Greenwald walks in, heavily intoxicated from a number of drinks he and Challee had shared before he showed up to the party, over which they had discussed details Greenwald had left out of the case. Greenwald proposes a toast to "Old Yellowstain." Unlike the "Caine's" junior officers, Greenwald feels deep regret over what he did to Queeg on the witness stand. To Greenwald, though Phil Queeg was a weak man, perhaps he was still an admirable one, and Queeg and career military men like him are actually heroic figures, since they were the ones putting their lives on the line to defend America--something none of the others were doing because they knew they could never truly enrich themselves financially in the armed forces. Greenwald is Jewish, and understands what the ramifications would be if the Axis were to win World War II.

Greenwald feels sorry for Queeg, because he sees that Queeg was not wrong about being surrounded by disloyal officers. Greenwald believes that Tom Keefer is the guiltiest party in the whole affair. Maryk, after all, really knew virtually nothing about psychology. Where would he have obtained any of his half-formed ideas about paranoia and mental illness, if not from Keefer?

Greenwald defended Maryk to the best of his abilities, which led him to destroy Queeg on the witness stand, because he saw that Maryk was essentially a decent man trying to do the right thing. Keefer, on the other hand, was an upper-class intellectual snob who regarded himself as superior to the blue-collar Queeg, and helped turn Maryk and the rest of the crew against him. Greenwald suggests that Maryk could even have reasoned with Queeg during the typhoon if Keefer had not poisoned the atmosphere in the first place.

Greenwald denounces Keefer, and throws a glassful of yellow wine into his face, before walking out of the party, an act which ruins it.


ee also

*The Caine Mutiny - Herman Wouk's novel
*The Caine Mutiny (film) - the 1954 film based on it

External links

*ibdb title|id=4224|title=The Caine Mutiny Court Martial
*imdb title|id=0094826|title=The Caine Mutiny Court Martial
*imdb title|id=0046816|title=The Caine Mutiny

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