Australian residential architectural styles

Australian residential architectural styles

Australian residential architectural styles can be broadly categorised as follows (there are overlaps between periods):
*Pre-Colonial Period 30,000 BCE - 1788 CE
*Old Colonial Period 1788 - c. 1840
*Victorian Period c. 1840 - c. 1890
*Federation Period c. 1890 - c. 1915
*Inter-War Period c. 1915 - c. 1940
*Post-War Period c. 1940 - 1960
*Late Twentieth Century 1960 - 2000
*Twenty-First Century 2001 --

Pre-Colonial Period 30,000 BCE - 1788 CE

The indigenous people of Australia are traditionally largely nomadic, ranging over an area, depending on the availability of particular foodstuffs that could be gathered at different times of the year. They managed the land through which they travelled by biennial burning-off which stunted the growth of forests and encourage grassland from which seed crops and kangaroos could be harvested.

The housing of the people first encountered by Europeans in the Sydney region were simple, shelters constructed of a semi-circle of stick, covered with large sheets of bark which could be conveniently stripped off melaleucca trees which grew profusely along waterways (commonly known as "Wurlies"). Other types of simple structures were seen including lean-tos and in tropical regions raised sleeping platforms. Grass, leaves and reeds were used as a thatch where suitable bark was not available. Fact|date=February 2007

There are isolated instances of indigenous peoples constructing partially using dry-stone wall techniques in Western Australia. [ [ The First Houses in Australia] ] The Aboriginal people also built dry-stone Fish Traps, of which the most extensive, ranging over 500 metres, is on the Barwon River at Brewarrina. Its age is unknown. It has been maintained and rebuilt after floods many times and is said traditionally to have been given to the local tribes by the Creator Spirit.

It appears that in conjunction with such catchment schemes, there may have also been nearby sedentary settlements of people who maintained them.Fact|date=February 2007 There is evidence at Lake Condah in Victoria of houses in conjunction with eel traps dating back about 8,000 years.Fact|date=February 2007

In January 2006, bushfires uncovered another nearby site of a village of stone houses that are large enough to have provided sleeping space for several families. [ [ The World Today] ]

Old Colonial Period 1788 - c. 1840

Colonial Architecture is the term used for the buildings constructed in Australia between European settlement in January 1788 and about 1840.

The first buildings of the British penal settlement in Sydney were a prefabricated house for the Governor and a similarly prefabricated Government Store to house the colony's supplies. Sydney was a tent settlement. Building anything more substantial was made unnecessarily difficult by the poor quality of spades and axes that had been provided and the shortage of nails.

The convicts adapted simple country techniques commonly used for animal shelters and the locally-available materials to create huts with wattle-and-daub walls. So useful were the local acacia trees for weaving shelters that they were given the name "Wattle". Some pipe clay was obtained from the coves around Port Jackson. Bricks were fired in wood fires and were therefore soft. Lime for cement was obtained by burning oyster shells.

The first imported roofing material was corrugated iron sheeting. Roofs of this type were to become part of the Australian vernacular. For many years imported roofing was in very short supply. Two local roofing materials were available- there were extensive reed beds near the Cook's river for thatching. There was also bark which could be peeled off a number of the indigenous trees in large sheets. Methods of heating and flattening the bark were used by the Aboriginal people and these were quickly assimilated by the convict builders.

The two most significant trees, both of which grew in the Sydney area, were the Melaleuca and the Iron Bark. The Melaleuca bark, having the texture of paper, could be peeled off the tree in layers up to 2cm thick, a metre long and perhaps half a metre wide without serious damage to the tree. Although not particularly durable as exterior roofing, the material provided excellent insulation and was used for ceilings and lining the walls.

The resilient bark from the Iron-bark tree was adapted as a major building material everywhere that such trees grew. It was widely used as a roofing material, was weatherproof, insulating and could last for thirty years. Houses of axe-hewn slabs with Iron-bark roofs continued to be built in rural Australia until WWII.

As better tools became available the Colonial builders became adept at working the extremely hard and durable timber of the native hardwood forests. The majority of houses were built of split logs rather than sawn timber. The technique employed for the construction of a wall was to chisel out a deep groove in a straight log, preferably of the local termite-resistant Cyprus pine which became the foundation. Split logs that had been adzed flat at the ends were then stood in the groove and another groove log was placed on top and slotted into place in a circular corner post. The gaps between the split logs were either packed with clay and animal hair or had narrow strips of metal cut from kerosene tins tacked over them. The interior could be plastered with clay, lined with paperbark or papered with newspaper, wrapping paper or calico. Cards, photographs, news clippings and commemorative items were often stuck directly onto the walls.

The technique of making durable hardwood roofing shingles was also developed. Where these shingles have been applied to brick houses, they have sometimes survived to the 21st century, covered by subsequent corrugated iron roofs.

In the earliest houses windows were usually small, and multi-paned with cylinder glass. When the cost of glass put it beyond reach of the home-owner, blinds of oiled calico were tacked across window openings in the winter months.

Types of buildings

The simplest houses were of a single room, which, if the bread-winner prospered, became the kitchen to a more substantial residence, or conversely, became the living room with a lean-to kitchen added. Houses that grew piecemeal were generally asymmetrical, with the door leading into the original room.

Houses that were planned were generally symmetrical, and very simple, usually containing 2 to 4 rooms around a central hallway. The kitchen was frequently detached and entered from a rear verandah or covered breezeway where pantry or scullery might also be located. Fireplaces projected outwards from the walls of the house. Except in the case of some small inner-city Georgian row houses built of brick, houses generally had a verandah added to them, often on three sides.

One class of people who maintained the tradition of wattle and daub, with a bark roof was the squatters who did not have title to their land, and potentially had to move on every two years.

Very few 19th century houses of wattle and daub or split timber have survived. A small number of split timber cottages which later became kitchens may be seen adjacent to more substantial homes, generally painted to match the house and barely recognizable.

Most buildings erected in the first 50 years of Australian settlement were simple and plain. Convict huts, marine barracks, government stores and houses for officials were simple rectangular prisms covered with hipped or gabled roofs often with verandahs supported on wooden columns in the Classical manner. They were influenced in particular by the regulation British military buildings in India and other tropical locations.

At the time of the first settlement, Georgian architecture was the architectural vernacular in Britain. Craftsmen, including carpenters and plasterers were trained in the classic proportions associated with the Palladian style fashionable across Europe. Palladian ideals reveal themselves in some of the few larger homes of the Regency period such as “Elizabeth Bay House”. Neoclassism incorporating not only Greek but also sometimes Ancient Egyptian motifs, beginning in Europe about 1760, also influenced Australian architectural style. “Fernhill” at Mulgoa with its wide colonnaded verandah shows the influence of Neoclassicism.As the Australian economy developed and settlements became more established, more sophisticated buildings emerged.

Old Colonial Regency Style

Old Colonial Gothic Picturesque


Victorian Period c. 1840 - c. 1890

*Gothic Revival1840 - 1880

The British Empire, of which Australia was an integral part, was heavily influenced by the Anglican religion. In turn this was influenced by the 19th century teachings of the Oxford and Cambridge Movements which believed Gothic architecture to be the purest, truest form. According to these English movements, this was the only way to achieve spiritual communication with God through architecture. Thus, while a local magnate may have built his home in a classical style, he would fund a church in the Gothic style. Thus, during the 19th century, when Australia was expanding rapidly, two forms of architecture were very evident: Gothic and the Classical styles. Originally Gothic was for God, and the Classical for the man. Later a new "self-made" Australian began to emerge, unhindered by a classical British education dictating classical gentlemanly interests. This "new" self-made man (like his contemporaries in Britain) would often choose Gothic as the design for his home.

The great cathedrals of the Middle Ages during the Gothic Period of ecclesiastical architecture formed the inspiration for this particular architectural style; not only in residential buildings, but in many commercial structures, churches and cathedrals built during this time. St. Paul's and St. Patrick's Cathedrals in Melbourne are excellent examples of the Gothic Revival Period, often referred to as Victorian Gothic. Characteristics were: steeply pitched roofs often made of slate, narrow doors and windows resolving in a Gothic pointed arch at their height (known as lancet windows), diamond pane glazing to windows imitating a stained glass affect, and intricate parapets, often of a religious nature, with a cross. In non-terrace houses, the drawing room was often pulled forward, adding a bay window to the front of the dwelling.

*Early, Mid and Late Victorian

1845 - 1900

The Victorian style in Australia can be divided into 3 periods: Early, Mid and Late. The period in its entirety stretches from 1837 to 1901 and was named after the then Queen, Queen Victoria. Early styles featured symmetrical layouts and façades, a centrally located front door and a hipped roof of corrugated iron, leading to a veranda on the façade. During the 1850s cast-iron lacework came to Australia, where it made its way on to Mid and Late Victorian Homes with much the same floor plan as the Colonial Style, a central hallway with a standard 4 rooms. Weatherboards were often used, although larger homes used red brick and blue stone. In the Mid Victorian Style, decoration began to gain popularity. The bullnosed veranda roof was introduced, sidelights were added either side of the front door, and terraced houses were springing up everywhere, containing parapets and detailed dividing walls between the property boundaries. Late Victorian Style homes had perhaps the most decorative features in all of the known architectural styles to date, which is often referred to as Boom Style. Towards the end of the Victorian era, timber fretwork was being used more and more, which led into the Edwardian/Federation Styles.

From the 1840s, a specific style of building emerged in Queensland. The Queenslander style of houses are identifiable by large verandahs and large double doors which open onto these verandahs, stilts rising the house above ground level (particularly in older houses), metal roofs typically of corrugated design and the houses are always constructed of mostly wood.

The styles during this period were: Georgian, Regency, Egyptian, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Filligree, Mannerist, Second Empire, Italianate, Romanesque, Academic Gothic, Free Gothic, Tudor, Rustic Gothic and Carpenter Gothic. Of these fifteen styles, the following seven were normally used for residential architecture:


A typical Georgian house of the nineteenth century was simple, elegant and formal in style.


The Regency style was a refinement of Georgian, with elaborations like a portico with columns at the front of the house.


As housing developed in Australia, verandas became important as a way of shading the house. From the mid-nineteenth century in particular, as people became more affluent, they built more elaborate homes, and one of the favoured elaborations was the filigree, or screen, of wrought iron. This developed to the point where it has become one of the major features of Australian architecture.


The Italianate style developed as a result of French painters who idealised the Italian landscape and turned it into their version of Arcadia. Their influence was long-lasting and eventually led to the Italianate architectural style of the nineteenth century. The style featured asymmetry and, usually, a tower of varying size.

Free Gothic

The Gothic style gained favour from the early days of Queen Victoria's reign. Free Gothic became a popular choice for architects and their clients because it was not concerned with historical correctness and therefore gave them greater freedom in their designs. The style was much in vogue for religious buildings but was sometimes used in residential architecture as well.


The Tudor style grew out of a nostalgia for things Old English, particularly focused on the days of Queen Elizabeth I and Henry VIII. Its role in Australia began when the English architect Edward Blore designed Government House in Sydney in 1834. The style spread all over Australia and also influenced later styles like Federation Queen Anne and Inter-War Old English.

Rustic Gothic

The Rustic Gothic style developed out of a "cult of the picturesque" which largely focused on rural images and especially the picturesque "rustic house", which became known as the "cottage orne". In Australia, this style had a great appeal to British settlers who still carried with them a hankering for things English.

= Federation period c. 1890 - c. 1915 =

The Edwardian Style was named after King Edward (1901 - 1910) at the time, and the term Federation coincided with Australia becoming a nation of its own in 1901. Thus, the Federation style was, broadly speaking, the Australian version of the Edwardian, but differed from the Edwardian in the use of Australian motifs, like Kangaroos, the Rising Sun (of Federation), and Emus. The names all indicated very similar styles with features so minute separating them. Cream painted decorative timber features, tall chimneys and fretwork. Federation depicted a Tudor type look, especially on gables, and Edwardian gave a simpler cottage look.

This style was, in fact, the Federation version of the Queen Anne style. Other styles during this period were Federation Academic Classical, Federation Free Classical, Federation Filligree, Federation Anglo-Dutch, Federation Romanesque, Federation Gothic, Federation Carpenter Gothic, Federation Warehouse, Federation Free Style, Federation Arts and Crafts and Federation Bungalow. Out of the twelve Federation styles, however, only the following four were normally used in residential architecture:

Federation Queen Anne

Federation Arts and Crafts

The Arts and Crafts style came out of a movement to get away from mass-production and rediscover the human touch and the hand-made. The architectural style was characterised by pebble walls, shingles, faceted bay windows, stone bases and tall chimneys. It was widely used in Australia during the Federation period.

Federation Bungalow

The bungalow style was usually a single-storey house with a prominent veranda, especially with the roof covering the veranda. It is seen as a transtion phase between the Federation period and the California bungalow.

Federation Filigree

The filigree style was characterised by the creation of a screen as a prominent style at the front of the house. In the Victorian period, the screen was made of wrought iron, but in the Federation period it was made of wooden fretwork, which could be quite elaborate. It was widely used in Queensland as a way of providing shade and circulation of air for a home.

Inter-War Period c. 1915 - c. 1940

Styles which existed during the 1915-40 period include Georgian Revival, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Mediterranean, Spanish Mission, Art-Deco, Skyscraper Gothic, Romanesque, Gothic and Old English.

Californian Bungalow

1915 - 1940This style can almost instantly be recognised by the columns holding up a front veranda area. The name is almost self-explanatory: bungalow, a rugged type of home. This led to the belief that picket fences looked appropriate at the front fence, although originally they were not used. Darker colours were originally used but, as the years went by, new brighter paint served as a welcoming change to open up the spaces and brighten up the homes. Stone, brick and timber, earthy materials were used. A gable roof faced either the front or side always.


1930 onwards

Originally specific to Queensland, the Ashgrovian style developed from the hipped bungalow style and was characterised by a frontage with a grand gable roof, often surrounded by secondary smaller gables behind, the smaller gables usually sheltering verandahs and sleep-outs. A staircase almost always dominated the front yard leading to the verandah.

Spanish Mission

1925 - 1939

Distinctly recognised by twisted pylons to a porch area covering the front door, usually windows grouped in threes to the side of the front door area on simpler homes. The style was influenced by the American Spanish inhabitant influenced American Architectural styles. Walls were brick in accordance with council regulations at the time, with white or cream yellowish cream stucco finish, and Spanish terra cotta tiles.

Old English

1915-1940The Old English style involved a certain nostalgia for English ways, and tended to draw on Tudor and such-like English styles harking back vaguely to the days of Henry VIII. It had a certain appeal for what was still a predominantly Anglo-Saxon population at the time.

Early Moderne

1930 - 1940A very modern looking style at the time, inspired by a German movement known as Bauhaus, representing functional and clinical architecture. Red or cream brick walls and concrete was also first seen. Steel-framed casement sashes, with larger panes of glass and terra cotta tiled roofs with a moderate pitch. The only featured part of the house included matching decorative front fences, and a featured roof affect.

The Streamline Moderne style was a late branch of the Art Deco style. The style emphasized curving forms, long horizontal lines, and sometimes nautical elements, such as railings and porthole windows. This style was adopted into suburban architecture, most notably in the Waterfall style.

Post-War Period c. 1940 - 1960


The Austerity style reflected the lack of availability of building materials and labour in the years following World War II.

Waterfall (Art Deco) 1940 - 1950

Fashionable modern houses of the thirties in the Streamline Moderne style were sometimes described as being like ocean liners, with walls, windows and balconies all sweeping around corners. By the 1940s these details were entrenched into suburban designs. The 'Waterfall' or 'Waterfall Front' style came to be known as such from the use of descending curves in chimneys, fence pillars and other vertical elements. Robin Boyd, the Australian architect and writer, noted that three was 'the key to decorative smartness'; three steps usually being used for the waterfall effect and featured parallel lines were often in threes.

Defining features of houses from this period are curved corner windows, including Venetian blinds, some rare examples of which are curved. With a slightly steeper pitched roof than the Early Modern Style, this style was generally of brick veneer cream brick but also could have dark brown glazed feature brickwork incorporated into the external walls, and under windowsills. Chimneys were either stepped or plain, and together with the round windows perhaps gave meaning to the "Waterfall" name.

Ecclesiastical, International, Melbourne Regional, Brisbane Regional and American Colonial were also styles which existed in the period 1940-1960.

International style

The Rose Seidler House built by Harry Seidler for his parents between 1948 and 1950 in Sydney incorporated Modernist features of open planning, a minimal colour scheme, and labour saving devices that were new to Australia at the time. The house won the Sir John Sulman Medal in 1951 and is today preserved as a museum as a very influential house. []

After the second World War, architects in Australia were influenced by the development of the International style of architecture. Some regional variations developed. In Melbourne, Robin Boyd and Roy Grounds articulated a Melbourne interpretation of the modern style. Boyd's book "Victorian Modern" (1947) traced the history of architecture in the state of Victoria and described a style of architecture that he hoped would be a response to local surroundings as well as the popular international style. In particular he nominated the work of Roy Grounds and in some outer suburban bush houses of the 1930s as being the early stages of such a style. Grounds and Boyd later worked in partnership.

The houses were typically narrow, linear, and single storey with a low pitched gable roof. They had exposed rafters and wide eaves. Walls were generally bagged or painted brick and windows were large areas of glass with regularly spaced timber mullions. cite web | author=Martin Miles | year=2006 | url= | title=The post-war Melbourne regional style | work=Modernist residential architecture in Canberra | | accessdate=2006-02-06 ]

L-Shape 1945 - 1955

This style represented a change in the overall floor plan, the plan resembling a large "L" Shape. Usually with gabled ends to the L, with terra cotta tiles still being used, as concrete tiles didn’t appear until the late 1960s. Timber or steel framed windows were used, and front facing fences resembled the house, much the same as had been seen since the Early Modern Period.

Triple front (cream brick) 1950 - 1960s

Distinctly recognisable by their front facing walls have 3 and sometimes even 4 front facing falls. This led to the front entrance sometimes brought round to the side within one of the alcoves created by the multiple fronts. Roofs were medium pitched and hipped with concrete tiles being used towards the end of the style in the late 60s. Front fences had a castellated top and feature piers raised above the top of the rest of the brick fence. Decorative iron was used very minimally, in gates to driveways, and balustrades to entrances.

Late twentieth century 1960 - 2000

Styles of the late 20th Century have largely been derived from the current world architectural trends, or have been imitative of previous Australian styles. These styles include Stripped Classical, Ecclesiastical, International, Organic, Sydney Regional, Perth Regional, Adelaide Regional, Tropical, Brutalist, Structural, Late Modern, Post Modern, Australian Nostalgic and Immigrants' Nostalgic

A good cross section of Australian residential architectural styles from this period, although not necessarily falling into one of the categories above, follows. Almost all of the houses shown in this section were built after 1960 and photographed just North of Sydney on the Central Coast of NSW.

Each of these styles has a different emphasis to practicality (physical needs, layout, and views), land and environmental considerations (structural requirements for foundations, design for weather protection) and aesthetic considerations (planar, volumetric, and sculptural form, emotional and spiritual qualities.) All of these requirements and qualities should be considered when designing a house.

Painted and rendered triple fronted brick veneer

This style of house has a brick facade (exterior) with timber frames supporting interior walls, usually of gyprock. Roofs are always hipped or gabled and tiled. As mentioned previously in this article, this style, without the painted and rendered brick facade, dominated suburban architecture in the 1950's - 1960's. In its basic form it is a bland and unimaginative style which has been propagated by developers. Due to its familiar and cheap construction, it still is the dominant style in housing estates and many consider the style the scourge of Australian domestic architecture. The basic style has been made more interesting by rendering and painting, adding more angles, porticos, verandahs, and bay windows. large homes, 2 story homes of this style have been described as "McMansions".

Timber and fibro fisherman's cottage

The original fisherman's cottage was built in many coastal towns between the 30's and 50's. It was originally a simple timber framed structure of one or two rooms and a verandah which was clad with asbestos sheeting. The floors were generally raised on piles. The verandah sometimes had handsome wooden balustrade that was sometimes enclosed to make an additional room or sleep-out. Timber detail around windows and gables were often painted- cheery red being one of the most popular traditional colours.

The original cottages, being relatively cheap to purchase, are now popular for renovation. Construction is easy and owner-building is common. The older buildings require insulation in the ceiling and walls. Timber and fiber cement sheeting now replaces the original asbestos and often the interior is completed gutted to create a modern open plan style of living. Timber strap-work can be used and windows frames painted for effect.

Regional gabled cottage

This popular style has emerged from the triple fronted brick veneer. While the house footprint and floor plan may be quite similar, the gabled cottage has a very different feel. In this style the distinctive gabled roof is a dominant design element, and a practical means of providing shade and entertaining space. Constructions can be entirely of brick (often painted), entirely timber, or a combination of brick on the lower part of the house and timber on the upper. Some houses of brick construction have featured verandahs and porticos. Roofs are usually galvanized iron and windows metal framed.

While it is well suited to sloping blocks, this style can also be built on a slab. The use of timber cladding greatly reduces weight and construction costs

Ranch style

The ranch style became popular in the nineties. It originated in Adelaide and subsequently became popular in regional and coastal NSW. The floor plan is simple and footprint (of at least the street facing section) is often rectangular. Walls are usually brick, or brick and timber, and windows are often colonial style floor-to-ceiling. Roofs usually tiled with extended eaves. The garage was often integrated into the house. Some ranch style houses were boomerang shaped, others were L shaped for corner allotments.

Ranch style houses can be readily combined with the Murcutt/Drew style (timber and galvanized iron). These smaller ranch style houses often have balconies the width of the house.

Murcutt/Drew steel and corrugated iron house

A number of styles have emerged from the influence of architects Phillip Drew and Glen Murcutt. The geometric play of angles is often a signature, likewise the (sometimes exposed) steel framing and corrugated iron cladding which is available in a variety of colours. Fiber cement and timber cladding is often used with the iron to create a sympathetic blend of textures. Being of light weight construction, the steel and corrugated iron approach is relatively cheap and suitable for both flat and steeply inclined land. Interior cladding is most often gyprock but can be timber or even plywood. Butterfly roofs can also be employed quite successfully in this design. This style of house is suited for steel framed pole houses on steep slopes.

Pavilion style

The Pavilion style house is characterized by a simple rectangular, box shaped volumetric style, open plan interior with glass replacing much of the wall space. Windows are often also steel framed. The transparency of the walls makes it well suited for blocks with privacy and/or views. Open patios are an integral part of living area, and like the rooms, they are orientated according to the aspect. Roofs are often low pitched roof and skillion. The style was a favorite of architect Harry Seidler who favoured walls of rendered brick however it is also well suited to a steel, fiber cement, and corrugated iron treatment. This approach often requires the thinness of steel framing to create the desired look.

Queenslander style (Australian Nostalgic)

The Queenslander style house is characterized by an all timber painted exterior, a timber stud frame, and a floor raised on piles for air flow in hot climate. They have wide verandahs (often the length of the house and enclosed by shutters, and roofs are gabled and corrugated iron. The street facing view is often symmetrical. The NSW Queenslander is often smaller than the original classic Queenslander and is less decorative probably due to limited supply of delicate timber detail and trades-people to build them. It is sometimes combined with the Ranch style house.



*Murcutt, Glenn (1995). "Works and Projects", Thames and Hudson.
*Drew, Phillip (1996). "Leaves of Iron", Angus and Robertson.
*Picket, Charles (1997). "Fibro Frontier", Powerhouse.
*Irving, Robert (1985). "The History and Design of the Australian House", Oxford University Press.
*Perse, JN (1981). "House Style in Adelaide - A Pictorial History", Stock Journal Publishers.

External links

* [ Gallery of Sydney Architecture]
* [ Article on Australian residential architecture styles]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Australian non-residential architectural styles — are a set of Australian architectural styles that apply to buildings used for purposes other than living in and have been around only since the first colonial government buildings of early European settlement of Australia in 1788. Their… …   Wikipedia

  • Australian architectural styles — Australian architectural styles, like the revivalist trends which dominated Europe for centuries, have been primarily derivative. The Indigenous Australians were a largely nomadic people, so there was little indigenous architectural style or… …   Wikipedia

  • Australian War Memorial — Infobox Military Memorial name=Australian War Memorial country=Australia commemorates=Australian military dead of all wars unveiled=1941, and in stages since then coordinates=coord|35|16|49.76|S|149|8|56.56|E|region:AU ACT type:landmark nearest… …   Wikipedia

  • Architecture of Australia — Architecture in Australia, at least in the early stages of the country s history shows the substantial influence of that of English architecture, and to an extent United States architecture. At best, Australian architects sought to be early… …   Wikipedia

  • Federation architecture — refers to the architectural style in Australia, predominantly in the Federation period c. 1890 c. 1915. The period refers to the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, when the Australian colonies collectively became the Commonwealth of… …   Wikipedia

  • Architecture and Civil Engineering — ▪ 2009 Introduction Architecture       For Notable Civil Engineering Projects in work or completed in 2008, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects (in work or completed, 2008)).        Beijing was the centre of the world of architecture… …   Universalium

  • architecture — /ahr ki tek cheuhr/, n. 1. the profession of designing buildings, open areas, communities, and other artificial constructions and environments, usually with some regard to aesthetic effect. Architecture often includes design or selection of… …   Universalium

  • arts, East Asian — Introduction       music and visual and performing arts of China, Korea, and Japan. The literatures of these countries are covered in the articles Chinese literature, Korean literature, and Japanese literature.       Some studies of East Asia… …   Universalium

  • Buildings and architecture of Sydney — The Buildings and architecture of Sydney are not characterised by any one architectural style, having accumulated and developed over an extensive period of time. Under early nineteenth century the tenure of Governor Lachlan Macquarie, the works… …   Wikipedia

  • Planned community — Navi Mumbai, India is the world s largest planned city. A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area. This contrasts with… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”