- Volga trade route
Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europeand Northwestern Russiawith the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River. The Rus used this route to trade with Muslim countries on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, sometimes penetrating as far as Baghdad. The route functioned concurrently with the Dniepertrade route, better known as the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, and lost its importance in the 11th century.
The Volga trade route was established by the Varangians
Ruswho settled in Northwestern Russia in the early 9th century. About six miles south of the Volkhov Riverentry into Lake Ladoga, they established a settlement called Ladoga(Old Norse: " Aldeigjuborg").Brøndsted (1965), pp. 64–65] Archaeological evidence suggests Rus trading activities along the Volga trade route as early as the end of the 8th century. The earliest and the richest finds of Arabic coins in Europe were discovered on the territory of present-day Russia, particularly along the Volga, in the district of Yaroslavl. A hoard of coins found at Peterhof, near Saint Petersburg, contains twenty coins with graffiti in Arabic, Turkic (probably Khazar) runic, Greek, and Old Norserunic, the latter accounting for more than half of the total. These coins include Sassanid, Arab, and Arabo-Sassanid dirhams, the latest of them dated to 804-805. [Noonan (1987-1991), pp. 213–219.] Having examined major finds of Arabic coins in Eastern Europe, Valentin Yaninconclusively demonstrated that the earliest monetary system of early Russiawas based on the early type of dirham minted in Africa. ["Денежно-весовые системы русского средневековья: домонгольский период", 1956]
From Aldeigjuborg, the
Ruscould travel up the Volkhov River to Novgorod, then to Lake Ilmenand further along the River Lovat. Taking their boats through a portage, they reached the sources of Volga. The traders brought furs, honey, and slaves through territory held by Finnish and Permian tribes down to the land of the Volga Bulgars. From there, they continued by way of the Volga, to the Khazar Khaganate, whose capital Atilwas a busy entrepot on the shore of the Caspian Sea. From Atil, the Rus merchants traveled across the sea to join the caravan routes leading to Baghdad.
ibn Khordadbehwrote about the Rus merchants who brought goods from Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia to Baghdad: cquote| [They] transport beaver hides, the pelts of the black fox and swords from the farthest reaches of the " Saqaliba" to the Sea of Rum [i.e., the Black Sea] . The ruler of Rum [i.e., the Byzantine Empire] takes a tithe of them. If they wish, they go to the "Tnys" river [i.e., " Tanais", the Greek name of the Don River] , "Yitil" [i.e., Itil, the ancient name of the Volga] , or "Tin" [variously identified as Don or Seversky Donets] , the River of the "Saqaliba". They travel to Khamlij, the city of the Khazars whose ruler takes a tithe of them. Then they betake themselves to the Sea of Jurjan[Caspian Sea] and they alight on whichever of its shores they wish. ... Sometimes, they carry their goods from Jurjan by camel to Baghdad. "Saqlab" slaves translate for them. They claim that they are Christians and pay the " jizya"."Rus." "Encyclopaedia of Islam"]
In ibn Khordadbeh's account, the Rus are described as "a kind of the "Saqaliba", a term usually used to refer to
Slavs, and anti-Normanist scholars have interpreted this passage as indicative of the Rus being Slavs rather than Scandinavians. In the interpretation of the Normanist scholars, the word "Saqaliba" was also frequently applied to all fair-haired, ruddy-complexioned population of Central, Eastern, and Northeastern Europe, so ibn Khordadbeh's language is ambiguous here (see Rus' (people)for details of the dispute between Normanists and Antinormanists).Modern scholars have also clashed over the interpretation of ibn Khordadbeh's report that the Rus used "Saqlab" interpreters. Anti-Normanists construed this passage as evidence that the Rus and their interpreters shared a common Slavic mother tongue. Slavic, however, was a lingua francain the Eastern Europe at that time.
The Persian geographer
ibn Rustahdescribed the Rus communities living along Volga:cquote|They sail their ships to ravage as-" Saqaliba" [the surrounding Slavs] , and bring back captives whom they sell at Khazaranand Bolghar... They have no estates, villages, or fields; their only business is to trade in sable, squirrel, and other furs, and the money they take in these transactions they stow in their belts. Their clothes are clean and the men decorate themselves with gold armlets. They treat their slaves well, and they wear exquisite clothes since they pursue trade with great energy. [Brøndsted (1965), p. 268]
ibn Fadlanwas a member of a diplomatic delegation sent from Baghdad to Volga Bulgars, and he left an account of his personal observations about the Rus of the Volga region, who dealt in furs and slaves. Johannes Brøndstedinterpreted ibn Fadlan's commentary as indicating that these Rus retained their Scandinavian customs regarding weapons, punishments, ship-burials, and religious sacrifices.Brøndsted (1965), p. 267] Ibn Fadlan's account includes a detailed description of the Rus praying and making sacrifices for success in trade:cquote|On anchoring their vessels, each man goes ashore carrying bread, meat, onions, milk, and "nabid" [possibly, beer] , and these he takes to a large wooden stake with a face like that of a human being, surrounded by smaller figures, and behind them tall poles in the ground. Each man prostrates himself before the large post and recites: 'O Lord, I have come from distant parts with so many girls, so many sable furs (and whatever other commodities he is carrying). I now bring you this offering.' He then presents his gift and continues 'Please send me a merchant who has many dinars and dirhems, and who will trade favourably with me without too much bartering.' Then he retires. If, after this, business does not pick up quickly and go well, he returns to the statue to present further gifts. If results continue slow, he then presents gifts to the minor figures and begs their intercession, saying, 'These are our Lord's wives, daughters, and sons.' Then he pleads before each figure in turn, begging them to intercede for him and humbling himself before them. Often trade picks up, and he says 'My Lord has required my needs, and now it is my duty to repay him.' Whereupon he sacrifices goats or cattle, some of which he distributes as alms. The rest he lays before the statues, large and small, and the heads of the beasts he plants upon the poles. After dark, of course, the dogs come and devour the lot -and the successful trader says, 'My Lord is pleased with me, and has eaten my offerings.' [Brøndsted (1965), p. 266]
On the other hand, the Rus came under foreign influence in such matters as dead chief's costume and in the habit of overloading of their women with jewelry:cquote|Each woman carries on her bosom a container made of iron, silver, copper, or gold -its size and substance depending on her man's wealth. Attached to the container is a ring carrying her knife which is also tied to her bosom. Round her neck she wears gold or silver rings; when a man amasses 10,000 dirhems he makes his wife one gold ring; when he has 20,000 he makes two; and so the woman gets a new ring for every 10,000 dirhems her husband acquires, and often a woman has many of these rings. Their finest ornaments are green beads made from clay. They will go to any length to get hold of these; for one dirhem they procure one such bead and they string these into necklaces for their women. [From ibn Fadlan. Brøndsted (1965), p. 265]
The Volga trade route lost its importance by the 11th century due to the decline of silver output in the
Abbasid caliphate, and thus, the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, which ran down the Dnieperto the Black Seaand the Byzantine Empire, gained more weight. [Brøndsted (1965), p. 117] The Icelandic saga"Yngvars saga víðförla" describes an expedition of Swedes into the Caspian launched around 1041from Swedenby Ingvar the Far-Travelled("Ingvar Vittfarne" in Norse), who went down the Volga into the land of the Saracens("Serkland"). The expedition was unsuccessful, and afterwards, no attempts were made to reopen the route between the Baltic and Caspian seas by the Norsemen. [Logan (1992), p. 202; Brøndsted (1965), p. 117]
Volga route played a major role in the inner trade of the
Golden Hordeand later between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Tatar khanates. International trade finally declined at the Volga only after the fall of the Khanates of Kazan ( 1552) and Astrakhan in ( 1556), when the entire length of the Volga came under the Russian control. But the river kept its importance for long-distance trade -- this time, trade within Russia as well as between Russia and Persia.Fact|date=February 2007
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