List of Victoria Cross recipients by campaign

List of Victoria Cross recipients by campaign

The Victoria Cross (VC) has been awarded 1356 times to 1353 individual recipients. The VC is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other Orders, decorations and medals; it may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. [Ashcroft, Michael; preface; XI–XIII] The award was officially constituted when Queen Victoria issued a warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856.Ashcroft, Michael; Preface to Victoria Cross Heroes] The Gazette publishing the original Royal Warrant
LondonGazette |issue=21846 |startpage=410 |endpage=411 |date=5 February 1856 |accessmonthday=12 January |accessyear=2008] (gazetted 5 February 1856) The order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War. [Ashcroft, Michael; pp.7–10] The first awards ceremony was held on 26 June 1857 where Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park.

The first citations of the VC, particularly those in the initial gazette of 24 February 1857, varied in the details of each action; some specify one date, some date ranges, some the name of the battle and others have both sets of information. The original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously. Between 1897 and 1901, several notices were issued in the "London Gazette" regarding soldiers who would have been awarded the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy in 1902, six of the soldiers mentioned were granted the VC, but not "officially" awarded the medal. In 1907, the posthumous policy was completely reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six officers and men. [LondonGazette |issue=27986 |date=15 January 1907 |startpage=325 |endpage= |supp= |accessmonthday=28 August |accessyear=2008] The Victoria Cross warrant was not officially amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920 but one quarter of all awards for the First World War were posthumous. [Crook, MJ, Chapter 8 pp.68–90] [LondonGazette |issue=31946|date=18 June 1920|startpage=6702|endpage= |supp= |accessmonthday=19 September|accessyear=2008] Three people have been awarded the VC and Bar, that is a medal for two separate actions; Noel Chavasse, Arthur Martin-Leake and Charles Upham. [Ashcroft, Michael, Introduction: A brief History of the VC (p.14–18)] Chavasse received both medals for actions in the First World War, whil Martin-Leake was awarded his first VC for actions in the Second Boer War, and his second for actions during the First World War. Charles Upham received both VCs for action during the Second World War.

The largest number of recipients for one campaign is the First World War where 628 medals were awarded to 627 recipients.Arthur, Max; pp.185–371] There are several statistics related to the largest number of VCs awarded in individual battles. The largest number awarded for actions on a single day was 24 on 16 November 1857, at the relief of Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny and the number awarded in a single action was 11 for the defence of Rorke's Drift on 22 January 1879 during the Zulu War. [Arthur, Max; p.XIV] Since 1991, Australia, Canada and New Zealand have created their own separate Victoria Crosses; the Victoria Cross for Canada, the Victoria Cross for New Zealand and the Victoria Cross for New Zealand. Only one of these separate medals have been awarded; Bill Apiata received the Victoria Cross for New Zealand on 26 July 2007 for actions in Afghanistan; as this is a separate medal, he is not included in this list.cite web| url=http://img.scoop.co.nz/media/pdfs/0707/VCmediakit2jul07.pdf |title=Press kit related to July 2007 gallantry awards (NZ) |publisher=NZ Government through news agency. |date =2 July 2007 |month =July |format =PDF |accessmonthday=3 July |accessyear=2007]

Recipients

*legend2|#faecc8|Rows highlighted in orange contain links to separate pages which contain the recipients of wars or campaigns with a large number of recipients
*legend2|#e3d9ff|This along with the *, indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously|border=1px solid #AAAAAA

References

;Specific;General
*cite web |url=http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/victoriacross.asp |title=Victoria Cross Registers |publisher=The National Archives |accessdate=2008-04-11
*cite book |last=Arthur |first=Max |authorlink=Max Arthur |title=Symbol of Courage; Men behind the Medal |publisher=Pan books |date=2005 |isbn=978 0 330 49133 4
*cite book |last = Ashcroft |first = Michael |authorlink = Michael Ashcroft |title = Victoria Cross Heroes |publisher = Headline Book Publishing |date = 2006 |doi = |isbn =0755316320
*cite book |last=Crook |first=M.J. |authorlink= |title=The Evolution of the Victoria Cross |publisher=Midas books |date=1975 |doi= |isbn=0 85936 041 5


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