- Resistivity
**Electrical resistivity**(also known as**specific electrical resistance**) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow ofelectric current . A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement ofelectrical charge . TheSI unit of electrical resistivity is theohm meter .**Definitions**The electrical resistivity ρ ("rho") of a material is given by

:$\{\; ho=\{R\; left.\; frac\{A\}\{ell\}\; ight.$where

:"ρ" is the static resistivity (measured in ohm metres, Ω-m);:"R" is the

electrical resistance of a uniform specimen of the material (measured inohm s, Ω);:"$ell$" is the length of the piece of material (measured inmetre s, m);:"A" is the cross-sectional area of the specimen (measured in square metres, m²).Electrical resistivity can also be defined as

:$ho=\{E\; over\; J\}$

where

:"E" is the magnitude of the

electric field (measured involt s permetre , V/m);:"J" is the magnitude of thecurrent density (measured inampere s persquare metre , A/m²).Finally, electrical resistivity is also defined as the inverse of the conductivity "σ" ("sigma"), of the material, or

:$ho\; =\; \{1oversigma\}.$

**Table of resistivities**This table shows the resistivity and

temperature coefficient of various materials at 20 °C (68 °F)* The numbers in this column increase or decrease thesignificand portion of the resistivity. For example, at 30°C (303.15 K), the resistivity of silver is 1.65×10^{−8}. This is calculated as Δρ = α ΔT ρ_{o}where ρ_{o}is the resistivity at 20°C and α is the temperature coefficient**Temperature dependence**In general, electrical resistivity of

metal s increases withtemperature , while the resistivity ofsemiconductor s decreases with increasing temperature. In both cases, electron-phonon interactions can play a key role. At high temperatures, the resistance of a metal increases linearly with temperature. As the temperature of a metal is reduced, the temperature dependence of resistivity follows a power law function of temperature. Mathematically the temperature dependence of the resistivity ρ of a metal is given by the Bloch–Grüneisen formula::$ho(T)=\; ho(0)+Aleft(frac\{T\}\{Theta\_R\}\; ight)^nint\_0^\{frac\{Theta\_R\}\{Tfrac\{x^n\}\{(e^x-1)(1-e^\{-x\})\}dx$

where $ho(0)$ is the residual resistivity due to defect scattering, A is a constant that depends on the velocity of electrons at the fermi surface, the Debye radius and the number density of electrons in the metal. $Theta\_R$ is the Debye temperature as obtained from resistivity measurements and matches very closely with the values of Debye temperature obtained from specific heat measurements. n is an integer that depends upon the nature of interaction:

#n=5 implies that the resistance is due to scattering of electrons by

phonon s (as it is for simple metals)

#n=3 implies that the resistance is due to s-d electron scattering (as is the case for transition metals)

#n=2 implies that the resistance is due to electron-electron interaction.As the temperature of the metal is sufficiently reduced (so as to 'freeze' all the phonons), the resistivity usually reaches a constant value, known as the**residual resistivity**. This value depends not only on the type of metal, but on its purity and thermal history. The value of the residual resistivity of a metal is decided by its impurity concentration. Some materials lose all electrical resistivity at sufficiently low temperatures, due to an effect known assuperconductivity .An even better approximation of the temperature dependence of the resistivity of a semiconductor is given by the

Steinhart–Hart equation ::$1/T\; =\; A\; +\; B\; ln(\; ho)\; +\; C\; (ln(\; ho))^3\; ,$

where "A", "B" and "C" are the so-called

**Steinhart–Hart coefficients**.This equation is used to calibrate

thermistor s.In non-crystalline semi-conductors, conduction can occur by charges

quantum tunnelling from one localised site to another. This is known asvariable range hopping and has the characteristic form of $ho\; =\; Ae^\{T^\{-1/n$, where n=2,3,4 depending on the dimensionality of the system.**Complex resistivity**When analyzing the response of materials to alternating

electric field s, as is done in certain types oftomography , it is necessary to replace resistivity with a complex quantity called**impeditivity**(in analogy toelectrical impedance ). Impeditivity is the sum of a real component, the resistivity, and an imaginary component, the**reactivity**(in analogy to reactance) [*http://www.otto-schmitt.org/OttoPagesFinalForm/Sounds/Speeches/MutualImpedivity.htm*] .**Resistivity density products**In some applications where the weight of an item is very important resistivity density products are more important than absolute low resistance- it is often possible to make the conductor thicker to make up for a higher resistivity; and then a low resistivity density product material (or equivalently a high conductance to density ratio) is desirable.

This fact is used for long distance overhead powerline transmission- aluminium is used rather than copper because it is lighter for the same conductance. Calcium, with a resistivity density product lower than aluminium, is rarely if ever used due to its highly reactive nature.

**ources***cite book | author= Paul Tipler| title=Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed.) | publisher=W. H. Freeman | year=2004 | id=ISBN 0-7167-0810-8

**ee also***

Electrical conductivity

*Electrical resistance

*Electrical resistivity imaging

*SI electromagnetism units

*Sheet resistance

*Electrical resistivities of the elements (data page) **External links*** [

*http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSN2041399820080320?rpc=64&pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=10150 New nanomaterial better efficient conductor*]

* [*http://www.ee.byu.edu/cleanroom/ResistivityCal.phtml/ Resistivity & Mobility Calculator/Graph from BYU cleanroom*]

*http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/mastascu/eLessonsHTML/Sensors/TempR.html

*http://www.trekinc.com/pdf/1005_Resistivity_Resistance.pdf

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