In category theory and its applications to mathematics, a biproduct is a generalisation of the notion of direct sum that makes sense in any preadditive category.


Let C be a preadditive category.In particular, morphisms in C can be added.

Given objects "A"1,...,"A""n" in C, suppose that we have:
*an object "A"1 ⊕ ··· ⊕ "A""n" in C (the "biproduct");
*morphisms "p""k": "A"1 ⊕ ··· ⊕ "A""n" → "A""k" in C (the "projection morphisms"); and
* morphisms "i""k": "A""k" → "A"1 ⊕ ··· ⊕ "A""n" (the "injection morphisms").

Additionally, suppose that:
*("i"1 ° "p"1) + ··· + ("i""n" ° "p""n") equals the identity morphism of "A"1 ⊕ ··· ⊕ "A""n";
*"p""k" ° "i""k" equals the identity morphism of "A""k"; and
*"p""k" ° "i""l" is the zero morphism from "A""l" to "A""k" whenever "k" and "l" are distinct.

Then "A"1 ⊕ ··· ⊕ "A""n" is a biproduct of "A"1,...,"A""n".

Note that if we take "n" = 0 in the above definition, then only the first condition applies, and we have for the "nullary biproduct" an object "O" such that the identity morphism on "O" is equal to the zero morphism from "O" to itself.


Biproducts always exist in the category of abelian groups.In that category, the biproduct of several objects is simply their direct sum.The nullary biproduct is the trivial group.Biproducts exist in several other categories with direct sums, such as the category of vector spaces over a given field.But biproducts do not exist in the category of all groups; indeed, this category is not even preadditive.


If a nullary biproduct exists and all binary biproducts "A"1 ⊕ "A"2 exist, then all biproducts whatsoever must also exist.

Biproducts in preadditive categories are always both products and coproducts in the ordinary category-theoretic sense; this is the origin of the term "biproduct".In particular, a nullary biproduct is always a zero object.Conversely, any finitary product or coproduct in a preadditive category must be a biproduct.

An "additive category" is a preadditive category in which every biproduct exists.In particular, biproducts always exist in abelian categories.


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