- Endothelial microparticle
Endothelial microparticles are small vesicles that are released from endothelial cells and can be found circulating in the
blood. The microparticleconsists of a plasma membranesurrounding a small amount of cytosol. The membrane of the endothelial microparticle contains receptors and other cell surface molecules which enable the identification of the endothelial origin of the microparticle, and allow it to be distinguished from microparticles from other cells, such as platelets.
Although circulating endothelial microparticles can be found in the blood of normal individuals, increased numbers of circulating endothelial microparticles have been identified in individuals with certain
diseases, including hypertension, prothrombotic states such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, multiple sclerosisand cerebral malaria (Combes et al., JAMA 2004). The endothelial microparticles in some of these disease states have been shown to have arrays of cell surface molecules reflecting a state of endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, endothelial microparticles may be useful as an indicator or index of the functional state of the endothelium in disease, and may potentially play key roles in the pathogenesis of certain diseases.
# Combes V, Simon A-C, Grau G-E, et al. "In vitro generation of endothelial microparticles and possible prothrombotic activity in patients with lupus anticoagulant." [http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/abstract/104/1/93 J Clin Invest 1999; 104: 93-102.]
# Jimenez JJ, Jy W, Mauro LM, et al. "Elevated endothelial microparticles in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: findings from brain and renal microvascular cell culture and patients with active disease." [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0007-1048&date=2001&volume=112&issue=1&spage=81 Br J Haematol 2001; 112: 81-90.]
# Minagar A, Jy W, Jimenez JJ, et al. "Elevated plasma endothelial microparticles in multiple sclerosis." [http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/56/10/1319 Neurology 2001; 56: 1319-1324]
# Preston RA, Jy W, Jimenez JJ, et al. "Effects of severe hypertension on endothelial and platelet microparticles." [http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/41/2/211 Hypertension 2003; 41: 211-217.]
# Horstman LL, Jy W, Jimenez JJ, Ahn YS. "Endothelial microparticles as markers of endothelial dysfunction." [http://www.bioscience.org/2004/v9/af/1270/3.htm Frontiers in Bioscience 9, 1118-1135, May 1, 2004]
# Brodsky SV, Zhang F, Nasjletti A, Goligorsky MS. "Endothelium-derived microparticles impair endothelial function in vitro." [http://ajpheart.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/286/5/H1910 Circulation. 2002;106:2372.]
# Brodsky SV, Malinowski K, Golightly M, et al. "Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes Formation of Endothelial Microparticles With Procoagulant Potential." [http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/106/18/2372 Circulation. 2002;106:2372.]
# COMBES V, TAYLOR TE, JUHAN-VAGUE I, MEGE JL, MWENECHANYA J, TEMBO M, GRAU GE, MOLYNEUX ME,. Circulating endothelial microparticles in Malawian children with severe falciparum malaria complicated by coma. JAMA 2004; 291: 2542-2544
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