- 405 BC
* After their victory in the
Battle of Arginusaeover the Spartans, the Athenian fleet follows the reappointed Spartan admiral, Lysander, to the Hellespont. The Athenian fleet under Admiral Cononis destroyed by the Spartans under Lysander in the Battle of Aegospotamiin the Sea of Marmaraand Conon flees to Cyprus.
* The Spartan king Pausanias lays siege to Athens while Lysander's fleet blockades
Piraeus. This action closes the grain route through the Hellespont, thereby starving Athens.
* While the
Peloponnesians besiege Athens, Theramenestries to negotiate with Lysander. He is away for three months while Athens is being reduced to starvation. Then he heads the embassy that negotiates the terms of capitulation to the Spartans.
Dionysius the Elderrises to power as the tyrant of Syracuse. He makes peace with the Carthagian general, Hamilco (whose army has been weakened by the plague), and fortifies Syracuse. This treaty leaves Carthage in control of most of Sicily.
* Dionysius the Elder ruthlessly consolidates and expands his power. He builds a wall around Syracuse and fortifies Epipolae. The Greek citizens of Naxos,
Catana, and Leontiniare removed from their cities; many of them are enslaved and their homes are given to Sicilian and Italian mercenaries. Dionysius prepares his army to fight against Carthage, which now occupies western and southern Sicily.
Aristophanes' play The Frogsis performed.
Euripides' " The Bacchae" and " Iphigeneia at Aulis" are performed posthumously as part of a tetralogyat the City Dionysia festival and win first prize.
* The "
Erechtheum", which includes "The Porch of Maidens" ( CaryatidPorch), is completed in the Ionian style on the Acropolisin Athensafter 16 years of construction.
Philolaus, Greek mathematician and philosopher (approximate date) (b. c. 480 BC)
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