Political and Military History
The first Farighunid amir mentioned is Ahmad b. Farighun. Ahmad, together with the
BanijuridAbu Dawud Muhammad b. Ahmad, was compelled to recognize the Saffarid Amr bin Laithas his suzerain. Only a short time afterwards, Amr was defeated and captured by the Samanids; Ahmad transferred his allegiance to them around this time. The Farighunids would remain Samanid vassals until the overthrow of the latter at the end of the 10th century. Ahmad was succeeded by his son Abu'l Haret Muhammad expanded the influence of the Farighunids, collecting tribute from certain parts of Ghor.
Abu'l Haret died probably some time after
982and his son Abu'l Haret Ahmad was drawn into the conflicts that took place within the Samanid amirate during its decline. He was ordered by his suzerain Nuh b. Mansur to attack the rebel Fa'iq, but was defeated by him. The Farighunids developed marriage alliances with the Ghaznavids; Abu'l Haret's daughter had married Sebük Tigin's son Mahmud, while Mahmud's sister had married Abu'l Haret's son Abu Nasr Muhammad. Abu'l Haret assisted Sebük Tigin's forces at Heratagainst Fa'iq and the SimjuridAbu 'Ali, a battle in which the Ghaznavids and Farighunids were victorious. The Ghaznavids soon afterwards supplanted the Samanids in Khurasan, and the Farighunids become Ghaznavid vassals.
Abu'l Haret died in c.
1000and Abu Nasr Muhammad succeeded him. Abu Nasr enjoyed the confidence of Mahmud of Ghazna; in 1008he fought in the center of the Ghaznavid line against the Karakhanidsoutside Balkhand in the following year escorted Mahmud during his campaign in India. He also married off a daughter to Mahmud's son Muhammad of Ghazna. When Abu Nasr died in around 1010Muhammad took over the rule of Guzgan, even though Abu Nasr had left a son, Hasan. This marked the end of Farighunid rule.
The Farighunids had a significant impact of many prominent individuals in the arts and sciences at the time. Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khwarizmi Two great poets,
Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadhaniand Abul-Fath Bosti, addressed poems to them, and the author of the "Hudud al-'alam", the first geographical treatise to be written in New Persian, dedicated the work to Abu'l Haret Muhammad in 982/3. The Farighunids may also have had connections with the encyclopedist Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khwarizmiand another encyclopedist named Isaiah b. Farighun, who wrote the "Jawame' al-'ulum" for the Muhtajid amir Abu 'Ali Chaghani.
*Bosworth, C. E. "Al-e Farigun." "Encyclopedia Iranica."
25 September 2006.
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