Sobornost (Russian definition: Spiritual community of many jointly living people). [С. И. Ожегов и Н. Ю. Шведова, ТОЛКОВЫЙ СЛОВАРЬ РУССКОГО ЯЗЫКА / S. I. Ozhegov and N. U. Shvedova Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language ISBN 5-902638-07-0] The term was coined by the early
Slavophiles, Ivan Kireevskyand Aleksey Khomyakov, to underline the need for cooperation between people at the expense of individualismon the basis that the opposing groups focus on what is common between them. Khomyakov believed the West was progressively losing its unity. According to Khomyakov this stemmed from the west embracing Aristotleand his defining individualism; whereas Kireevsky believed that Hegeland Aristotle represented the same ideal of reconciliation.
Khomyakov and Kireevsky originally used the term "sobornost" to designate cooperation within the Russian "
obshchina", united by a set of common convictions and Orthodox Christian values, as opposed to the cult of individualism in the West.
As a philosophical term, it was used by
Nikolai Losskyand other 20th century Russian thinkers to refer to a middle way of co-operation between several opposing ideas. This was based on Hegel's "dialetic triad"— thesis, antithesis, synthesis—though, in Russian philosophy, it would be considered an oversimplication of Hegel. It influenced both Khomyakov and Kireevsky, who expressed the idea as organic or spontaneous order.
The synthesis is the point where "sobornost" is reached causing change. Hegel's formula is the basis for
Historicism. Nikolai Lossky for example uses the term to explain what motive would be behind people working together for a common, historical or social goal, rather than pursuing the goal individualistically. Lossky used it almost as a mechanical term to define when the dichotomyor dualityof a conflict is transcended or how it is transcended, likening it to the final by product after Plato's Metaxy. [ Chris Matthew Sciabarra, " [http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&id=31xclri1vZkC&dq=Sciabarra,+Chris+Matthew++ayn+rand&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=0XffhPq_7c&sig=SMJ0cGxu2AtErJ8RouWo9Qwohnc&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPR7,M1 Ayn Rand] : The Russian Radical". Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-271-01441-5] .
Kireevsky asserted that "the sum total of all Christians of all ages, past and present, comprise one indivisible, eternal living assembly of the faithful, held together just as much by the unity of consciousness as through the communion of prayer". [Ninian Smart, John Clayton, Patrick Sherry, Steven T. Katz. "Nineteenth-Century Religious Thought in the West". Cambridge University Press, 1988. Page 183.] The term in general means the unity, togetherness that is the church, based on individual like-minded interest.
Starting with Vladimir Soloviev, sobornost was regarded as the basis for the
ecumenicalmovement within the Russian Orthodox Church. Sergei Bulgakov, Nikolai Berdyaev, Pavel Florenskywere notable proponents for the spirit of sobornost between different Christian factions. The Pochvennichestvoperspective of sobornost held that it means conforming oneself to the truth rather than the truth's being subjective to the individual.
Nikolai Losskyexplained that sobornost involved "the combination of freedom and unity of many persons on the basis of their common love for the same absolute values"." [Sciabarra, Chris Matthew (1995). "Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical." Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01441-5. page 28] This is in contrast to the idea of fraternity, which is a submission to a brotherhood as a benefit to the individual. Sobornost is a pietyakin to kenosisin that the individual gives up self-benefit for the community or ecclesia, being driven by theophilos rather than adelfikós.
poshlustin contrast to sobornost
* [http://www.sobornost.org/ www.sobornost.org] __NOTOC__
* [http://www.madonnahouse.org/publications/doherty/sobornost.htm "Sobornost: Experiencing Unity of Mind, Heart, and Soul in Union with the Holy Trinity"] by
Catherine Doherty, author, and foundress of the Madonna House Apostolate.
*www.sobornostnews.org [http://www.sobornostnews.org] : a website devoted to the promotion of unity according to the principle of sobornost.
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