Name = Periosteum
Caption = compact spongy bone
Meningesof the CNS
DorlandsPre = p_13
DorlandsSuf = 12628368
Periosteum is a
membranethat lines the outer surface of all bones, [Netter, Frank H. (1987). "Musculoskeletal system: anatomy, physiology, and metabolic disorders". Summit, New Jersey: Ciba-Geigy Corporation ISBN 0914168886, p.170] except at the joints of long bones. [At the joints of long bones the bone's outer surface is lined with "articular cartilage", a type of hyaline cartilage.] Endosteumlines the inner surface of all bones.
Periosteum consists of the irregular type of
dense connective tissue. Periosteum is divided into an outer "fibrous layer" and inner "cambium layer". The fibrous layer contains fibroblastswhile the cambium layer contains progenitor cellswhich develop into osteoblasts. These osteoblasts are responsible for increasing the width of a long bone [The length of a long bone is controlled by the epiphyseal plate] and the overall size of the other bone types. After a bone fracture the progenitor cells develop into osteoblasts and chondroblastswhich are essential to the healing process.
As opposed to
osseous tissue, periosteum has nociceptors nerve endings, making it very sensitive to manipulation. It also provides nourishment by providing the blood supply. Periosteum is attached to bone by strong collagenous fibers called Sharpey's fibres, which extend to the outer circumferential and interstitial lamellae. It also provides an attachment for muscles and tendons.
Periosteum that covers the outer surface of the
skullis known as "Pericranium".
* Brighton, Carl T. and Robert M. Hunt (1997), "Early histologic and ultrastructural changes in microvessels of periosteal callus", "Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma", 11 (4): 244-253
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