trousersmade from denim. Mainly designed for work, they became popular among teenagers starting in the 1950s. Historic brands include Levi'sand Wrangler. Today, jeans are a very popular form of casual dressaround the world and come in many styles and colors, with the "blue jeans" particularly identified with the American culture, especially the American Old West. Americans spent more than $14 billion on jeans in 2004. [cite book |last=Sullivan |first=James |title=Jeans: A Cultural History of an American Icon |origdate=2006-08-17 |accessdate=2008-09-15 |publisher= Gotham Books|location= London|isbn=978-1592402144 |oclc=62697070 |pages=pp 238–239] In 1895 you could buy jeans for $1.50. Today, some jeans cost $200 to $500 with limited-edition and collectibles costing up to $2000. [cite book |last=Sullivan |first=James |title=Jeans: A Cultural History of an American Icon |origdate=2006-08-17 |accessdate=2008-09-15 |publisher= Gotham Books|location= London|isbn=978-1592402144 |oclc=62697070 |page=p 3]
The earliest known precursor to jeans is the Indian export of a thick cotton cloth, in the 16th century, known as "
dungaree". Dyed in indigo, it was sold near the Dongarii Fort near Bombay, and cut by sailors to suit their needsFact|date=August 2008.
Jeans fabric was made in
Chieri, a town near Turin( Italy), in the 1600s. It was sold through the harbour of Genoa, which was the capital of an independent republic, and a naval power. The first were made for the Genoese Navy because it required all-purpose pants for its sailors that could be worn wet or dry, and whose legs could easily be rolled up to wear while swabbing the deck. These jeans would be laundered by dragging them in large mesh nets behind the ship, and the sea water would bleach them white.According to many people the jeans name comes from "bleu de Gênes", i.e., "blue of Genoa"Fact|date=August 2008. The raw material originally came from the city of Nîmes( France) "Serge de Nîmes" i.e. " denim".
A German-Jewish dry goods merchant
Levi Strausswas selling blue jeans under the "Levi's" name to the mining communities of Californiain the 1850s. One of Strauss's customers was Jacob Davis, a tailor who frequently purchased bolts of cloth from the Levi Strauss & Co wholesalehouse. After one of Davis's customers kept purchasing cloth to reinforce torn pants, he had an idea to use copper rivets to reinforce the points of strain, such as on the pocket corners and at the top of the button fly. Davis did not have the required money to purchase a patent, so he wrote to Strauss suggesting that they both go into business together. After Strauss accepted Davis's offer, the two men received US patent|139121, for an "Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings," on May 20, 1873.
Jeans in popular culture
Initially, blue jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by workers, especially in the factories during
World War II. During this period, men's jeans had the zipper down the front, whereas women's jeans had the zipper down the right side. By the 1960s, both men's and women's jeans had the zipperdown the front. In the United States during the 1950s, wearing of blue jeans by teenagers and young adults became symbolic of mild protest against conformity. This was considered by some older adults as disruptive; for example, some movie theaters and restaurants refused to admit patrons who wore blue jeans. During the 1960s the wearing of blue jeans became more acceptable and by the 1970s had become general fashion in the United States, at least for informal wear. Notably, in the mid-1950s the denimand textiles industrywas revolutionized by the introduction of the stone-washing technique by GWG ( Great Western Garment Co.). Entrepreneur, importer, and noted eccentric Donald Freelandof Edmonton, Albertapioneered the method, which helped to bring denimto a larger and more versatile market. Denimsuddenly became an attractive product for all age groups and Freeland became one of the most important innovators in the history of denim and denim products. It should be noted, also, that Freeland contributed to a variety of other denim textiledevelopments throughout his careerwith Great Western Garments (GWG) [http://www.conestogac.on.ca/~sfinlay/IMC/cases/LevisGWG.htm] Acceptance of jeans continued through the 1980s and 1990s to the point where jeans are now a wardrobe staple, with the average North American owning seven pairs [http://www.cottoninc.com/LifeStyleMonitor/Denim-Issue-Lifestyle-Monitor-2007/?Pg=3 Lifestyle Monitor 2007 Denim Issue] ] .
As imported American products, jeans were somewhat expensive, especially in the case of the
Soviet Unionwhich restricted hard currency imports. In Spain they are known as "vaqueros" or "cowboys," in Danish "cowboybukser" meaning "cowboy pants" and in Chinese "niuzaiku" (SC: 牛仔裤), literally, "cowboy pants" (trousers), indicating their association with the American West, cowboy culture, and outdoors work. Similarly, the Hungarian name for jeans is "farmernadrág", meaning "farmer-trousers".
Jeans can be worn very loose in a manner that completely conceals the shape of the wearer's lower body, or they can be snugly fitting and accentuate the body. Historic photographs indicate that in the decades before they became a staple of fashion, jeans generally fit quite loosely, much like a pair of bib overalls without the bib. Indeed, until
1960, Levi Strauss denominated its flagship product "waist overalls" rather than "jeans".
Blue jean insulation
Recycled blue jean is becoming a popular insulation material (sometimes called Cotton Batt insulation) used in the construction of houses. Due to its low relative synthetic chemical composition and because it is made of recycled materials, it is gaining prominence in
green buildingcircles. Like conventional insulation, it moderates heat transfer and reduces sound transfer between floors or rooms. Blue Jean insulation has an R-Value of 13 to 19 (for 3.5 and 5.5 inch batts, respectively) making it a preferable insulator to typical fiberglass batts even without taking into account the environmental considerations. [ [http://www.toolbase.org/Technology-Inventory/walls/non-fiberglass-batts Insulation Alternatives: Non-Fiberglass Batts] ]
Fits of jeans are determined by current styles, sex, and by the manufacturer. Here are some of the fits produced for jeans:
Boy cutor Boyfriend (for women)
* Straight jeans
* Wide leg
Rises in jeans (the distance from the crotch to the waistband) range from high-waisted to superlow-rise (Low rise can be called Low Riders). Jeans for men usually have a longer rise and zipper, whereas women have a shorter rise and zipper, although exceptions do exist and this is largely a function of current trends. In decades past, when high-waisted jeans were popular, it was often the women's that featured a longer rise.
* [http://www.jeansinfo.org/how_they_make_jeans.html How Jeans Are Made]
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