- Rockaway, Queens
The Rockaway Peninsula, also known as The Rockaways, is the name of a peninsula of
Long Island, most of which is located within the borough of Queensin New York City. A popular summer resort area since the 1830s, Rockaway — or, as it is informally known, "The Rockaways" — has become a mixture of lower, middle, and upper-class neighborhoods. Its remoteness from Manhattanhas made it a popular retreat, but also has provided an out-of-the-way area to relocate communities destroyed by urban renewal. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 14. [ [http://www.nyc.gov/html/cau/html/cb/cb_queens.shtml Queens Community Boards] , New York City. Accessed September 3, 2007.]
What is now known as Rockaway was inhabited by the
LenapeNative Americans, but sold to the Dutch by the Mohegantribe along with most of Long Island in 1639 [ [http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/indianwars/articles/kieftswar.aspx Governor Kieft's Personal War] , accessed November 28, 2006.] , and to the British in 1685. [ [http://www.matinecock.org/portal/desktopdefault.aspx?tabindex=2&tabid=23&item=9 Matinecock Masonic Historical Society: History] , accessed November 28, 2006] Finally the land was sold to Richard Cornell, who settled there. [ [http://www.rockawave.com/common/history/history.html Rockaway..."place of waters bright"] , "The Wave", accessed November 28, 2006] The name "rockaway" is the later corruption of a Lenape languageword that sounded phonetically something like "rack-a-wak-e", and referred to the area.
The village of Rockaway Park became incorporated into the
City of Greater New Yorkon January 1, 1898.
The playground of New York
Rockaway became a popular area for seaside hotels starting in the 1830s, and popularity grew with the coming of the
Long Island Rail Roadin the 1880s. The bungalowbecame the most popular type of housing during the summer months. Even today, some of these remain, converted to provide modern amenities, although the vast majority were razed in urban renewal during the 1960s.
In 1893, Hog Island, a resort known for entertaining
Boss Tweedand Tammany Hallsank into the sea. Located a few miles east of Breezy Point, and also known as Rockaway Island, the entire island disappeared during a storm. Plates, along with older artifacts still wash up along the shore of Rockaway Beach. Rockaways' Playland, a world renowned amusement park opened in 1901, and was a popular place for New York families until 1985 when insurance costs and competition from major regional parks made it impossible to continue operations.
The completion of the
Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridgein 1925 and the Marine Parkway-Gil Hodges Memorial Bridgein 1937 increased the accessibility to Queens and Brooklyn, however, the development of Jones Beach by Robert Mosesdrew tourism away from both Coney Islandand Rockaway Beach.
Today the area still draws crowds during the summer, with well-tended beaches.
Jacob Riis Parkand Fort Tildencan be found on the western end of the peninsula, part of the Gateway National Recreational Areacreated in 1972 as one of the first urban national parks. A long boardwalk and long sandy beaches make this a popular summer day trip for New York City residents. towards the western end of the boardwalk, several portions of the beach are fenced off to preserve the nesting habitat for several species of ternsand plovers, making for a unique urban birdwatchinglocale.
With the advent of inexpensive travel, air-conditioning and the highway system, Rockaway lost its luster as a recreation area, and development transformed much of it into residential communities.
The peninsula's main communities are Belle Harbor and Far Rockaway. Other important neighborhoods on the peninsula include Arverne, Neponsit, Rockaway Beach, Rockaway Park, Breezy Point and Edgemere.
Broad Channel, located on its own island in
Jamaica Baybetween the peninsula and the mainland of Queens, is generally considered to be psychographically part of the Rockaways. The Rockaway area, including Broad Channel, is served by the IND Rockaway Line(NYCS Rockaway south) of the New York City Subway, although both lines run completely above ground locally, using tracks purchased from the Long Island Rail Roadin the 1950s (until 1975, an additional fare was charged to passengers either boarding or departing the train at any of the Rockaway-area stations, including Broad Channel, if the trip originated or terminated outside the area).
In the years immediately following
World War II, several public housingprojects were built in the region, and these eventually became hotbeds of crimeand related social pathologies. This provoked a backlash from some of the peninsula's more established residents (many of whom are of Irish Catholicethnicity). A strong Jewish community (many of whose members are Sephardi Jews) also exists in the area south of Far Rockaway.
Redevelopment has started in some areas of the peninsula. Although plans including casinos, sports arenas, and various other real-estate projects had been proposed in the past many of those plans did not come to fruition due to either lack of funds, development stagnation, or resident resistance. However, in 2002, a "revival" began on the peninsula, as a new residential development plan started construction in a large vacant section between Rockaway Beach and Arverne. The new areas have become known as Arverne By the Sea [ [http://www.arvernebythesea.com/ Arverne by the Sea Website] ] and Arverne East. [ [http://arverneeast.com/ Arverne East Website] ]
The new development projects however, have sparked a new building boom in the neighboring communities. This has caused some concern and has led to various debates regarding development within those neighborhoods. The main problem has to do with Rockaway's zoning laws: those laws, decades old, cater to large multiple dwellings because of the hotels that had once existed in the area. This has led to construction of taller and wider buildings in areas that currently contain lower density housing. In response, some communities have approved rezoning plans for their neighborhoods in order to stop "out of character" development. [ [http://www.rockawave.com/news/2007/0202/Front_Page/002.html Rockaway Park Votes 'Go' On Rezoning] "The Wave", accessed
April 7, 2007.]
Opponents also contend that due to the rapidly growing population [ [http://www.rockawave.com/news/2007/0323/Front_Page/001.html Pop! Number of New Residents Surges] "The Wave", accessed
April 7, 2007.] , the current infrastructure is inadequate and that there are environmental issues to consider. Those in favor of the development, however, contend that the development will help spur economic development and that the infrastructure cannot be upgraded until the population has reached a more noticeable level. Furthermore some developers have questioned the legality of "down zoning". [ [http://www.rockawave.com/news/2006/0714/Front_Page/003.html Rockaway Beach Downzone Debate Rages On] "The Wave", accessed April 7, 2007.]
Art and culture
The Rockaway Art's Council provides a wide range of events throughout the year. Two art groups in Rockaway,the Rockaway Theater Company and the Rockaway Artists' Alliance, hold most of their productions in
Fort Tilden. The Ramonessong "Rockaway Beach" is probably the most common pop culture reference to this region, although Herman Melvillerefers to it in " Moby-Dick". Woody Allen's " Radio Days" was filmed in Rockaway Park, with period facades and cars turning back the clock during the shoot. Denis Leary's hit TV series "Rescue Me" has filmed in many locations on the Rockaway Peninsula. In the " Seinfeld" episode " The Marine Biologist", Kramer suggests that George and Jerry accompany him to Rockaway to hit golf balls into the ocean.
June 6, 1993, a ship called the " Golden Venture" beached on the shore off Fort Tilden, located on the western half of the Rockaway Peninsula. The ship contained 296 Chinese illegal aliens including 13 crew members. Ten people drowned trying to reach the peninsula's shoreline. [Stout, David. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE5DA1239F93BA25752C1A963958260&scp=13&sq=%22golden+venture%22+rockaway+drowned&st=nyt "Suspected Organizer of Golden Venture Operation Is Arrested"] , " The New York Times", November 18, 1995. Accessed March 11, 2008.]
November 12, 2001, American Airlines Flight 587crashed in the Rockaway neighborhood of Belle Harborkilling 265 people (260 on board the aircraft and 5 on the ground).
Far Rockaway High School
Beach Channel High School
Stella Maris High School
*Scholars' Academy High School
*St. Francis de Sales
*St. Rose of Lima
*West End Temple
Yeshiva of Far Rockaway
*Beth El Temple
*Church Of God Christian Academy
*St. Mary Star of the Sea
* [http://www.rockawave.com/common/history/history.html History of Rockaway] from [http://www.rockawave.com/ The Wave]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/BellotsHistoryOfTheRockaways1917 Downloadable copy of "History of the Rockaways from the year 1685 to 1917" by Alfred H. Bellot]
* [http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/nyc/parks/loc69.htm US Geological Survey for Breezy Point]
* [http://www.rootsweb.com/~nynassa2/rockaways.htm The Rockaways by Henry Isham Hazelton] (1924)
* [http://www.farrockawayhighschool.net/ Far Rockaway High School Alumni Website]
* [http://www.stfrancisdesalesparish.org St. Francis]
* [http://www.nps.gov/gate/ Gateway National Recreation Area official website]
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