- Region (Europe)
European Unioncreated the Committee of the Regionsto represent Regions of Europe as the layer of EU government administration directly below the nation-state level. The Committee has its headquarters in Brussels.
Reasons for this include:
* the historic and cultural claims for autonomy in many regions all over the EU
* strengthening the political and economic situation in those regions
Some nation states which have historically had a strong centralized administration have transferred political power to the regions. Examples of this include the devolution of power in Britain (the
Scotland Act 1998, the Government of Wales Act 1998) and the current negotiations in France concerning increased autonomy for Corsica. Some other states have traditionally had strong regions, such as the Federal Republic of Germany; yet others have been structured on the basis of national and municipal government with little in between.
Regional and local authorities elect delegates to the
Committee of the Regions. The Committee is a consultative body, and is asked for its opinion by the Council or the Commission on new policies and legislation in the following areas:
* Public Health
* Anti-drug support
* Trans-European Networks
* Social and Economic Cohesion
* Structural Funds
On certain issues it works in partnership with the
Economic and Social Committee.
The politics of the regionalism have also had their impact on the pan-European level. The regions of Europe have lobbied for an increased say in EU affairs, especially the German Länder. This has resulted in the creation by the
Maastricht Treatyof the Committee of the Regions, and provision for member states to be represented in the Council by ministers from their regional governments.
The desire of the German Länder however has been frustrated by other member states, which are opposed to direct involvement by the regions in EU decision-making. The German Länder successfully lobbied the German government (which has in turn lobbied the European Council) for the 2004 IGC to deal with the division of powers between the EU, national and regional levels of government.
Council of Europealso has a Congress of Local and Regional Authorities, similar to the EU's Committee of the Regions.
Strengthening economic competition between communities further supports the creation of authentic regions within the EU and almost all EU member states recently have or currently are re-organizing their administration to create competitive EU regions. Often these regions better reflect culture and identity and a sense of common interests.
Outside the EU institutions, the
Council of European Municipalities and RegionsCEMR-CCRE is the largest organisation of local and regional government in Europe; its members are national associations of towns, municipalities and regions from over 35 countries. Together these associations represent some 100,000 local and regional authorities.
CEMR works to promote a united Europe that is based on local and regional self government and democracy. To achieve this goal it endeavours to shape the future of Europe by enhancing the local and regional contribution, to influence European law and policy, to exchange experience at local and regional level and to cooperate with partners in other parts of the world.
The idea for a representation of regions within the administration of the
European Unionrelates to some regions' long history as autonomous regions. Examples include Flandersas an autonomous region of Belgium, the Basque Country, which lies in both north-eastern Spainand south-west France, Cataloniawhich lies in eastern Spainand south-east France, Scotlandand Walesin the United Kingdom. Indeed, historically and culturally the UK is made up of four separate countries (consisting of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales) [cite web |url=http://www.number10.gov.uk/output/Page823.asp |title=Countries within a country |accessdate=2008-07-31|publisher=10 Downing Street] . For example, Scotland is seen by many in the UK as a non-sovereign "nation" within the UK "state", having historically kept its own legal, education, cultural and religious institutions, and even more so today with its own legislature having power over most aspects of Scottish life. All of these regions have growing or well established nationalistic sentiments (see Flemish Movement, Basque nationalism, Catalan nationalism, Welsh self-government, Scottish independence).
*Loughlin, John et al.: "Subnational Democracy in the European Union: Challenges and Opportunities".
Oxford University Press. Oxford, 2004.
Council of European Municipalities and Regions(CCRE-CEMR)
Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics(NUTS)
Historical regions of Central Europe
Historical regions of the Balkan Peninsula
List of Regions of Europe
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