Structure of the rail industry in the United Kingdom

Structure of the rail industry in the United Kingdom

British mainline railways are in the private sector, with the exception of Translink's Northern Ireland Railways. As such, the vast majority are not controlled by central government, although they are all subject to economic and safety regulation by arms of government.

Except in Northern Ireland, the infrastructure is separately owned and operated - by Network Rail - from the trains which use it.

There are effectively two separate mainline railway systems in the United Kingdom - the Great Britain system and the Northern Ireland system, which are regulated operate separately and are constituted under separate pieces of legislation.

Great Britain

Railways in Great Britain are run under a structure established by the Railways Act 1993 (as amended), which provided for the break-up of the former vertically integrated state railway, the British Railways Board, and the transfer of its operations into the private sector. The Secretary of State for Transport has overall responsiblity for the railways within the Government

In Great Britain, passenger trains are run under either franchises from the Department for Transport or on an open access basis, which means their operators have no contract with government. Freight train operators have no contracts with government, and rely on the competitiveness and attractiveness of their product and services to maintain and increase their market shares.

Rolling stock is largely owned by rolling stock leasing companies - ROSCOs.

In 2006, using powers in the Railways Act 2005, the Department for Transport took over most of the functions of the now wound up Strategic Rail Authority. The DfT now itself runs competitions for the award of passenger rail franchises, and, once awarded, monitors and enforces the contracts with the private sector franchisees. Franchises specify the passenger rail services which are to be run and the quality and other conditions (for example, the cleanliness of trains, station facilities and opening hours, the punctuality and reliability of trains) which the operators have to meet. Some franchises receive subsidy from the DfT for doing so, and some are cash-positive, which means that the franchisee pays the DfT for the contract. Some franchises start life as subsidised and, over their life, move to being cash-positive.

The other regulatory authority for the privatised railway is the Office of Rail Regulation, which, following the Railways Act 2005, is the combined economic and safety regulator. It replaced the Rail Regulator on 5 July 2004.

Northern Ireland

Unlike the other constituent countries of the United Kingdom, railways in Northern Ireland are a devolved matter. The Northern Ireland Minister for Regional Development has responsiblity for railways in Northern Ireland. (Even during direct rule, a Minister of State at the Northern Ireland Office has always had responsiblity for railways in Northern Ireland, and not the Secretary of State for Transport).

The structure of the railway industry in Northern Ireland is governed by the Transport Act 1967 (Northern Ireland) [] , an Act of the former Parliament of Northern Ireland that still applies. This established a statutory corporation, the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company - which trades under the brand name Translink - whose members are appointed by the Minister for Regional Development. The corporation has established a wholly-owned subsidary, Northern Ireland Railways Company Limited - which trades as NI Railways - to carry out its functions relating to railways.

Unlike in Great Britain, where different companies run the network, provide rolling stock, and operate trains, NI Railways carries out all these activities itself in Northern Ireland and is thus a vertically integrated railway rather than merely a train operating company. The only exception is the Dublin - Belfast railway line, where services are operated jointly with Iarnrod Éireann, the nationalised railway company in the Republic of Ireland, under the brand name Enterprise.


* [ National Rail Trends] 2003-2004 quarter three, from the Strategic Rail Authority. (Warning: PDF format)
* [ DfT Transport Ten Year Plan 2000] from the UK Government Department for Transport.
* [ Network Rail - Making a Fresh Start] - National Audit Office report, 14 May 2004. (Warning: PDF format)

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Social structure of the United Kingdom — The social structure of the United Kingdom has historically been highly influenced by the concept of social class, with the concept still affecting British society in the early 21st century.[1] Although definitions of social class in the United… …   Wikipedia

  • List of law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom — There are a number of law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom. There are four general types mostly concerned with policing the general public and their activities and a number of others concerned with policing of other, usually localised,… …   Wikipedia

  • Economic history of the United Kingdom — The economic history of the United Kingdom deals with the history of the economy of the United Kingdom from the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain on May 1st, 1707,[1] with the political union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of… …   Wikipedia

  • High-speed rail in the United Kingdom — The United Kingdom has four classic main railway lines operating at convert|125|mph|km/h|sigfig=2, plus convert|108|km|mi|sigfig=1 of High Speed 1 high speed line.The fastest current UK domestic services operate at convert|125|mph|km/h|sigfig=2… …   Wikipedia

  • Law enforcement in the United Kingdom — Crime in the UK · Terrorism in the UK Topics …   Wikipedia

  • Oil and gas industry in the United Kingdom — This article sets out the role of the UK oil and gas industry in the economy, energy supply and technology. It also covers the industry’s safety and environmental record and its prospects for the future. Contents 1 Location 2 Exploration and… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Statutory Instruments of the United Kingdom, 1995 — This is a complete list of all 1,872 Statutory Instruments published in the United Kingdom in the year 1995. NOTOC 1 100* National Health Service (Optical Charges and Payments) (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 1995 S.I. 1995/1 * Plymouth… …   Wikipedia

  • Bus transport in the United Kingdom — Buses play a major role in the public transport of the United Kingdom, as well as seeing extensive private use.History The horse bus era The first omnibus service in the United Kingdom was started by John Greenwood between Pendleton and… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Statutory Instruments of the United Kingdom, 1987 — This is a complete list of all 1468 Statutory Instruments published in the United Kingdom in the year 1987. NOTOC 1 100* Parish and Community Meetings (Polls) Rules 1987 S.I. 1987/1 * National Health Service (Food Premises) (Scotland) Regulations …   Wikipedia

  • United Kingdom — a kingdom in NW Europe, consisting of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: formerly comprising Great Britain and Ireland 1801 1922. 58,610,182; 94,242 sq. mi. (244,100 sq. km). Cap.: London. Abbr.: U.K. Official name, United Kingdom of Great… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”