color = lightgreen
name = "Bougainvillea"
image_width = 240px
image_caption = "Bougainvillea spectabilis"
divisio = Magnoliophyta
genus = "Bougainvillea"
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = Selected species:
Bougainvillea is a genus of
flowering plants native to South Americafrom Brazilwest to Peruand south to southern Argentina( Chubut Province). Different authors accept between four and 18 species in the genus. The name comes from Louis Antoine de Bougainville, an admiralin the French Navywho discovered the plant in Brazilin 1768.
They are thorny, woody,
vines growing anywhere from 1-12 meters tall, scrambling over other plants with their hooked thorns. The thorns are tipped with a black, waxy substance. They are evergreenwhere rainfall occurs all year, or deciduousif there is a dry season. The leaves are alternate, simple ovate-acuminate, 4-13 cm long and 2-6 cm broad. The actual flowerof the plant is small and generally white, but each cluster of three flowers is surrounded by three or six bracts with the bright colors associated with the plant, including pink, magenta, purple, red, orange, white, or yellow. " Bougainvillea glabra" is sometimes referred to as "paper flower" because the bracts are thin and papery. The fruitis a narrow five-lobed achene.
Bougainvillea are relatively pest-free plants, but may suffer from worms and
aphids. The larvae of some Lepidopteraspecies also use them as food plants, for example the Giant Leopard Moth.
Cultivation and uses
Bougainvilleas are popular
ornamental plants in most areas with warm climates, including India, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Australia, the Mediterranean region, the Caribbean, Mexico, South Africa, and the United Statesin Arizona, California, Florida, Hawaii, and southern Texas.
cultivars and hybrids have been selected, including nearly thornless shrubs. Some Bougainvillea cultivars are sterile, and are propagated from cuttings.
Bougainvillea are rapid growing and flower all year in warm climates, especially when pinched or pruned. They grow best in moist fertile soil. Bloom cycles are typically four to six weeks. Bougainvillea grow best in very bright full sun and with frequent fertilization, but the plant requires little water to flower. As indoor
houseplants in temperate regions, they can be kept small by bonsaitechniques. If overwatered, Bougainvillea will not flower and may lose leaves or wilt, or even die from root decay.
Various species of bougainvillea are the official flowers of the island of Grenada, the island of Guam, of Lienchiang and Pingtung Counties in
Taiwan, Ipoh, Malaysia [http://www.heritage.com.my/ipoh/tour_guide/] and of the cities of Tagbilaran, Philippines; Camarillo, California; Laguna Niguel, California; and San Clemente, California.
References and external links
[http://www.picable.com/Nature/Flowers/Bougainvillea-Close-up.273331 picture: Bougainvillae Flower Close-up]
* [http://www.agaclar.gen.tr Türkçe bilgi için "Bougainvillea"]
* [http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?1617 Germplasm Resources Information Network: "Bougainvillea"]
* [http://www.elchenque.com.ar/rve/montenegro.htm "Bougainvillea spinosa" in Argentina] (in Spanish)
* [http://florabrasiliensis.cria.org.br/search?search_string=Bougainvillea Flora Brasiliensis: "Bougainvillea"] (in Portuguese)
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