- Song of the Forests
Dmitri Shostakovichcomposed his oratorioThe Song of the Forests, Op. 81, in the summer of 1949. It was written to celebrate the forestation of the Russian steppes following the end of World War II. Premiered by the Leningrad Philharmonicunder Yevgeny Mravinskyon 15 December 1949, the work was well-received by the government, earneing the composer a Stalin Prizethe following year.
The oratorio is notorious for lines praising
Stalinas the "great gardener", although its later performances have normally omitted them.
The oratorio lasts aruond 40 minutes and is written in seven movements:
# When the War Was Over
# The Call Rings Throughout the Land
# Memory of the Past
# The Pioneers Plant the Forests
# The fighters of Stalingrad Forge Onward
# A Walk Into the Future
=In the shadow of the Zhdanov decree=
Compared to most of Shostakovich's other output, especially several of his symphonies, it is all too easy to consider "The Song of the Forests" a simplistic and overtly accessible "official" piece without remembering the context of the time in which it was written. In 1948 Shostakovich, along with many other composers, was again denounced for formalism in the Zhdanov decree. Simplistic and overtly accessible compositions was exactly what the Party demanded. Shostakovich was not the only one writing "safe" pieces at this time. Prokofiev compoosed his oratorio "
On Guard for Peace" and Myaskovsky wrote his 27th Symphony. [Maes, 311.] Even so, Soviet attacks on composers were both arbirtaary and unpredictable, due in no small part to vagueness surrounding the theory of socialist realismin music and how it should be applied. Marina Frolova-Walker stated the situation this way:
For Shostakovich the story of 1936 was repeated, only this time he was not alone. Most of his works were banned, he was forced to publicly repent, and his family had privileges withdrawn.
Yuri Lyubimovsays that at this time "he waited for his arrest at night out on the landing by the lift, so that at least his family wouldn't be disturbed". [Elizabeth Wilson, "Shostakovich: A Life Remembered" p. 183.] In the next few years Shostakovich divided his compositions into film music to pay the rent, official works aimed at securing official rehabilitation, and serious works "for the desk drawer". The latter included the Violin Concerto No. 1 and the song cycle " From Jewish Folk Poetry". The cycle was written at a time when the post-war anti-Semiticcampaign was already under way, and Shostakovich had close ties with some of those affected.
For practical reasons (not to mention those of personal survival), Shostakovich began using two distinct musical idioms in which to compose. The first was more simplified and accessible to comply with Party guidelines. The second was more complex and abstract to fulfill himself artistically. "The Song of the Forests" belongs in the first category. [Schwarz, "New Grove", 17:265.] In his "official" style he set a text by Evgeny Dolmantovsky, a poet high in Party favor. Dolmantovsky had seen the then-new forest plantations and shared his experiences with the composer.Ledbetter, 5.]
Shostakovich creates an ard from the opening evocation of vastness of the Russian steppes with a dark, almost Mussorgskian recollection of the devastation of the war just past, to a closing
fugueof vigor and affirmation. In between these two points are a series of choral songs engouraging the planting of trees. While composing this piece, Shostakovich read an article in his daughter's school newspaper about groups of "Pioneers"—the Soviet youth movement—becoming involved in the planting project. He asked Dolmantovsky to supply additional lines for children's chorus to represent the Pioneers' efforts. A lyrical movement just before the finale is reminiscent of the recently castigated Eighth Symphony, though more "accessibly" to avoid censure. The final fugue, Shostakovich felt, was a risk since fugues were considered formalistic. By using a Russian folk song as the basis for the movement and the potential of citing Glinka as a model, he felt he reduced the risk factor substantially.Ledbetter, 5.] Instrumentation
:Woodwind: 3 flutes (3rd doubling
piccolo), 3 oboes (3rd doubling english horn), 3 clarinets, 2 bassoons:Brass: 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba:Percussion::: timpani::triangle, snare drum, cymbals, glockenspiel:Other: celesta, 2 harps, strings: Brass band: 6 trumpets, 6 trombones
While "Song of the Forest"' has been considered neither the best nor the most popular of Shostakovsh's ouvre, it continues to be performed and recorded because it is an attractive musical
pastiche. Reminiscences of the boys' chorus from Tchaikovsky's "Pique Dame" rub shoulders with Glinka and even Mussorgsky. There is additionally a direct influence of Mahler's " Das Lied von der Erde", especially the introspective third and fourth movements. Shostakovich hints at this in the similarity of titles between the two compositions. The propaganda value of "The Song of the Forests" may have been purely superficial, but it was enough to satisfy Party ideologues. [Volkov, 242.]
Nods to officialdom
Nevertheless, the composer considered this oratorio a shameful work. ["Muzykal'naia akademiia", 4 (1997), 225.] Before the work's premiere, a friend of Shostakovich said to him, "It would be so good if instead of Stalin you had, say, the queen of the Netherlands—she's a big fan of reforestation. The composer replied, "That would be wonderful! I take responsibility for the music, but as for the words ..." ["Pis'ma k drugu", 82-83.]
Ironically, the work glorified Stalin least of all. The fierce battles of
World War IIhad deforested huge tracts of the Soviet Unionand the concern for replacing and increasing forest land became a major issue in the immediate post-war years. This appeal for forestation was the core musical idea in the oratorio, with Stalin getting only a few "pro forma" phrases. These acknowledgements proved totally superfluous and were easily jettisoned after Stalin's death. [Volkov, 241-242.] Nevertheless, heightening the irony was Shostakovich's receiving a Stalin Prizefor the work.Ledbetter, 5.]
* Frolova-Walker, Marina, "'National in Form, Socialist in Content': Musical Nation-Building in the Soviet Republics." "Journal of the American Musicological Society" 51 (1998), 331-371.
* Ledbetter, Stephen, Notes for RCA/BMG 68877, "On Guard for Peace—Music of the Totalitarian Regime"; St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by
* Maes, Francis, tr. Arnold J. Pomerans and Erica Pomerans, "A History of Russian Music: From "Kamarinskaya "to" Babi Yar (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2002). ISBN 0-520-21815-9.
* Volkov, Solomon, tr. Antonina W. Bouis, "St. Petersburg: A Cultural History" (New York: The Free Press, 1995). ISBN 0-02-874052-1.
* Wilson, Elizabeth, "Shostakovich: A Life Remembered"(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994). ISBN 0-691-04465-1.
* [http://yso.hp.infoseek.co.jp/index2.html Mori no Uta] "Song of the Forests" played by Japanese amateur.
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