102nd Intelligence Wing

102nd Intelligence Wing

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= 102d Intelligence Wing

caption= 102d Intelligence Wing emblem
dates= 1946–present
country= United States
allegiance= United States Air Force
branch= Air National Guard/Air Combat Command
type= Wing
role= Ground-based distributed radar installation [cite web |url=http://www.102ndfighterwing.com/|title=102nd Fighter Wing|accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher=Ken Middleton|date= Date|2008-01-22]
size= 950 members
Including:80 officers
745 enlisted personnel
command_structure= Air National Guard/Air Combat Command
garrison= Otis ANGB, Massachusetts
nickname= "Eagle Keepers"
"Bear Chasers"
motto= "Omnis Vir Tigris"
Everyone A Tiger
equipment= Distributed Common Ground Systems
Air Operations Center [cite web |url=http://www.maotis.ang.af.mil/COMMANDERPOLICYSTATEMENTApril2008.pdf |title=Commander Environmental Statement|accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher=102IW Public Affairs office|date=Date|2008-01-22]
decorations= Personnel Center Awards Search (Post-1991)
commander1=Anthony E. Schiavi
commander1_label=Current Commander
The United States Air Force's 102nd Intelligence Wing (102 IW), Massachusetts Air National Guard, is an intelligence unit located at Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts. It is a parent unit of the 101st Intelligence Squadron. From its creation in 1946 to its mission change in 2008, the 102nd was the mainstay of aerospace defence for the Northeastern United States. The 102nd was deployed during the Berlin Crisis to France and was also deployed to Panama during Operation Coronet Nighthawk. It also participated in Operation Northern Watch. During the September 11 attacks, the 102nd Wing was the first Air Force unit to send aircraft toward New York City, but they arrived too late to help stop the attacks.

Base downsizing through the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process removed the wing's F-15C Eagles beginning in 2007, leaving the 102nd with an intelligence gathering mission that will be fully active starting in 2010. It is one of three Air National Guard wings that works with the Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency.



After World War I ended, there was a general interest in organizing aviation assets for the National Guard system. At the time, in the US force structure aircraft were organized into infantry units in a fashion similar to other weapons, like artillery. Guard units without their own aircraft units would need units from other forces to be sent to operate with them, a situation no-one thought was promising. The War Department agreed that the guard should organize aviation squadrons as an organic part of the 18 infantry divisions assigned to the National Guard.cite web |url=http://www.mass.gov/guard/museum/airhistory.htm|title=Commonwealth of Massachusetts Military Division, Air National Guard History|accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher=National Guard Museum & Archives|date=Date|2008-05-29]

In Massachusetts, the Archie Club, composed of former Army Air Service pilots, lobbied for the formation of an air unit for the Massachusetts National Guard. The state had earlier been allotted the entire 26th Guard Division. On June 27, 1921, the Adjutant General of Massachusetts authorized the organization of the 101st Observation Squadron, and within weeks 15 veteran World War I pilots were commissioned and assigned to the 101st under the command of Capt. James K. Knowles. The 101st built its own air base on land-filled tidal flats at Jeffries Point, East Boston.cite web | url=http://www.maotis.ang.af.mil/102iw.htm |title=Team Otis Online, The 102d Intelligence Wing|accessdate=2008-07-10|publisher=US Air Force] The 101 flew its Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" aircraft throughout New England at air shows, county fairs and other events. In addition, the 101st attended two-week summer camps that simulated forward deployments. Pilots flew their Curtiss O-11s to temporary fields on Cape Cod while ground crews followed in trucks. One of these fields became Cape Cod Airport.

In 1933 Jeffery Field was rebuilt with new hangers and administrative buildings, and renamed Logan Airport in honor of Major General Edward L. Logan, who commanded the 26th Division from 1923 to 1928. The 101st was ordered into state service in 1936 and 1938 during a devastating flood and hurricane to fly observation missions and to drop food and equipment to stranded fishermen and the residents of Isle au Haut, Maine The 101st helped gained fame when it played a big part in the U.S. Army Air Service's flight around the world. It then cared for the Spirit of St. Louis when Charles Lindbergh visited the state.

World War II

101st Squadron

In 1940, the 101st was separated from the 26th Infantry Division and in November was ordered into active Federal service for intensive training. Initially the 101st’s 25 officers and 133 enlisted men remained at home station until July 31 1941 when it was then moved from Logan to Otis Field at Camp Edwards. Otis Field was named in after 1st Lt Frank J. Otis, Jr., MD, a 101st flight surgeon who was killed in a flight accident in 1938. The 101st participated in the North Carolina maneuvers in the fall of 1941 and returned to Otis on December 6 1941.

With the outbreak of World War II, the 101st was assigned to fly anti-submarine patrols off the coast of New England until September 10 1942. By then many of its original members has been reassigned during the expansion of the Army Air Forces. During the next two years, the 101st was transferred to several bases and on May 20, 1944 had its mission changed when it was re designated as the 39th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron. It was then placed under the command of the Ninth Air Force and deployed to the European Theater in December, 1944 with 45 officers and 297 enlisted men. The 39th flew both P-38s and P-51s during operational missions from January, 1945 to the end of the war in May. The 39th returned to the states in August, 1945 and was re designated as the 101st Fighter Squadron in May 1946, and then inactivated two month later.

Veterans of the 101st and Army Air Force reorganized the 101st at Logan Airport on July 29, 1946. The squadron was equipped with the P-47 Thunderbolt and was federally recognized on October 15, 1946.

318th Fighter Group

The 102nd Intelligence Wing can trace its roots back to the 318th Fighter Groupcite web |url=http://libraryautomation.com/nymas/usaaf5.html |title=Air Force Combat Units of World War II — Part 5 |accessdate=2008-08-10|publisher=Maurer, Maurer |year= 1986] . The 318th, which was formed in 1942, fought in the Pacific and was part of bomber escort missions to Japan, as well as participating in aircraft carrier takeoffs, rarely used by the Army Air Force. After the war, the 318th was moved to the United States. It was deactivated on January 12, 1946. It was reactivated as the 102nd Fighter Group on May 22, 1946.

Cold War

In the post-war era the National Guard Bureau began a major expansion of its air units. Massachusetts was allotted the 67th Fighter Wing, which consisted of the 101st and the 131st Fighter Squadrons, the 202nd Air Service Group, 601st Signal Construction Company, 101st Communications Squadron, 101st Air Control Squadron, 151st Air Control and Warning Group, 567th Air Force Band, 101st Weather Flight and the 1801st Aviation Engineer Company. The 67th Wing was assigned to Air Defense Command.

With the formation of the US Air Force the Guard units suffered from neglect. In the midst of the switch to jet fighters, the Guard units were left with their handed-down and generally overused World War II propeller aircraft, and had little money for training. As the Cold War intensified, the Air Forced looked to the Guard to fill US-based interception missions and started overhauling their organization. On 1 Nov. 1950 the 67th Fighter Wing was inactivated and replaced by the 102nd Fighter Wing, including just the 101st and 131st along with their associated support units. The squadrons were issued F-84B Thunderjets, but these aircraft were recalled and replaced by F-51 Mustangs which were flown until 1954 when the F-94 Starfire replaced the Twin Mustangs. In 1952 the 253d Combat Communications Group was activated and added to the 102nd. In 1958 the Wing converted to the F-86H Sabre.

From 1956 to 1976, the 102d was headed by Brigadier General Charles W. Sweeney, who piloted the B-29 Superfortress, which dropped the Fat Man atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan in 1945.cite web |url=http://www.ngb.army.mil/news/todayinhistory/august.aspx|title=Today in Guard History (August) History|accessdate=2008-07-22|publisher=National Guard|year=2008]

Berlin Crisis

During the summer of 1961, as the Berlin Crisis unfolded, several USAF reserve units were notified on August 16 of their pending recall to active duty. On October 1st, the Massachusetts Air National Guard's 102nd Tactical Fighter Wing and its three squadrons, the 101st Tactical Fighter Squadron, the 131st Tactical Fighter Squadron, and the 138th Tactical Fighter Squadron went on active duty at Otis Air Force Base.cite web |url=http://www.102ndfighterwing.com/otis_web_history.htm|title=102nd Intelligence Wing History|accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher=The 102nd Fighter Wing & 101st Fighter Squadron|date=Date|2008-05-29]

Between the 28th and 30th of October, the 102nd TFW departed Logan International Airport to Phalsbourg, France. The wing deployed 82 Sabres across the Atlantic. In addition two C-47 Skytrains and six T-33 Shooting Star aircraft were assigned to the wing for support and training purposes. The 102d's primary mission at the time was to provide close air support to NATO ground forces and air interdiction. Starting on December 5, the 102nd began deploying to Wheelus Air Base, Libya for gunnery training.

During its time in Europe, the 102nd participated in several USAF and NATO exercises, including a deployment to Leck Air Base, West Germany near the Danish border. At Leck, ground and support crews from both countries exchanged duties, learning how to perform aircraft maintenance and operational support tasks.

On May 7 1962, the Seventeenth Air Force stated that the 102nd would deploy back to the United States during the summer, returning in July 1962. Regular USAF personnel, along with a group of ANG personnel who volunteered to remain on active duty formed the 480th Tactical Fighter Squadron of the newly activated 366th Tactical Fighter Wing.

Relocation to Otis

In 1968, the 102nd Tactical Fighter Wing moved to Otis Air Force Base. The next year the wing was reassigned from Air Defense Command to Tactical Air Command. The wing flew the F-84F Thunderstreak from 1964 until June 1971, when a squadron of F-100D Super Sabres was transferred directly from units fighting the Vietnam War.cite web|url=http://www.philippecolin.net/102ndFW.html|title=The 102nd Fighter Wing|accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher=Philippe Colin|date=Date|2008-01-22] After making the transition to the "Hun," the Mach 2 F-106 Delta Darts soon arrived to replace them. On June 10 1972, after completing the move to the F-106, the unit officially became the 102nd Air Defense Wing. On December 30, 1973, Otis AFB was inactivated and transferred to the Massachusetts ANG as Otis Air National Guard Base.

The wing participated in the interception of Soviet TU-95 Bear bombers on many occasions, the first of which occurred off Long Island in 1975. Many of these occasions included escorting the aircraft to Cuba. Other escort missions involved the escorting of drug smuggling planes and the identifying of one mysterious ghost plane, which turned out later to be a weather balloon.cite web |url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2008/01/25/otis_sees_its_last_landing/|title=Otis See Its Last Landing|accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher=Boston News|date=Date|2008-05-29]

In 1976, the 102nd Fighter Interceptor Group was deactivated and re-formed as the 102nd Fighter Interceptor Wing, assuming authority for the 177th and 125th Fighter Interceptor Groups in Atlantic City, NJ, and Jacksonville, FL, and for the 107th and 147th Fighter Interceptor Groups, flying F-4C Phantom at Niagara Falls, NY, and Ellington Field, TX.

The 102nd FIW deactivated its F-106s on January 5, 1988. Between January and April 1988, the wing converted to the F-15A Eagle, which it received from a unit deactivating at Minot Air Force Base. It then resumed its alert commitment at Otis, and also provided an alert detachment at Loring AFB. The 102nd was the first ANG unit to be equipped with the F-15.

Post-Cold War

The wing continued its air defense mission after the fall of the Soviet Union. Examples of this include a 1992 deployment of eight pilots, five F-15 Eagles, and 48 maintenance and security personnel, for five days to Canadian Forces Base Goose Bay, Labrador, Canada. The same year, with the reorganization of the USAF, the wing was reassigned from the disbanding Tactical Air Command to the new Air Combat Command. A year later, the wing deployed 50 personnel from the 102nd Civil Engineering Squadron under field conditions, to the island of Eleuthera in the Bahamas in July 1993. They helped to rebuild school buildings and municipal facilities that were damaged by Hurricane Andrew.cite web |url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/usaf/102fw.htm|title=Global Security History of the 102d Fighter Wing|accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher=Global Security|date=Date|2008-05-29]

Between 1991 and 1995 the wing deployed to Panama as part of Operation Coronet Nighthawk, a drug interdiction operation. From 1995 to 1998 the wing deployed to Iceland for 45 days of air defense duty. During 1998 members both trained for and performed in real-world contingency assignments in Iceland, Canada, Korea, and Europe. In 1999 the wing participated in Operation Northern Watch when it deployed with its F-15 Eagle aircraft to Turkey to patrol and enforce the no-fly zone north of the 36th Parallel in northern Iraq. The wing again deployed more than 350 personnel to the Middle East and Europe in 2000 to participate in Operation Southern Watch.

Global War on Terror

9/11 Terrorist Attacks

:"See also: Flight 11, Flight 175"On September 11, 2001, two planes were hijacked and flown towards New York City. Then Federal Aviation Administration contacted the North American Aerospace Defense Command's Northeast Air Defense Sector at Rome, New York, bypassing standard procedures. NORAD ordered the 102nd Fighter Wing to scramble its jets. Two F-15s piloted by Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Duffy and Major Daniel Nash were scrambled and took off to fly to New York. Difficulties in pinpointing the exact location of Flight 11 led to a delay of five minutes before the scramble order was given at 8:43. When Flight 11 hit the North Tower at 8:46, the two F-15 Eagles that had been ordered to scramble were still on the runway at Otis; they did not take to the air until 8:52. Lacking a target, the F-15s were directed toward military-controlled airspace off the Long Island coast to avoid New York area air traffic. Uncertain about what to do, the planes were ordered to 'hold as needed' there. At 9:02, Flight 175 hit the South Tower while the fighters flew to their holding position. The Northeast Air Defense Sector was not contacted about this hijacked plane until 9:03. From 9:09 to 9:13 the F-15s stayed in the holding pattern.cite web |url=http://www.ntsb.gov/info/Flight_%20Path_%20Study_AA11.pdf |title=Flight Path Study — American Airlines Flight 11 |publisher=National Transportation Safety Board |date=Date|2002-02-19|accessdate=2008-05-25] cite web |url=http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report_Ch1.htm |title='We Have Some Planes' |month=July|year=2004 |publisher=National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States |accessdate=2008-05-25] cite web |title=9/11 recordings chronicle confusion, delay |url=http://edition.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/17/911.transcript/ |date=Date|2004-06-17|publisher=CNN |accessdate=2008-05-24] [9/11 Commission Report] At 9:13, the pilots of the F-15s told FAA Boston Center that they were heading for Manhattan to establish a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) over the area. The F-15s arrived over Manhattan at 9:25.

Conspiracy Link

:"See Also: 9/11 Conspiracy theories"Many people who believe in a government conspiracy during the 9/11 attacks claim the government kept the jets from going to New York.cite web |url=http://my.telegraph.co.uk/jah_wibble/blog/2008/07/07/conspiracies?com_num=20&com_pg=2 |title= 'Conspiracies!' |date=Date|2008-07-07|publisher= Telegraph.co.uk |accessdate=2008-07-30] Although this is true because of Cold War policies, they claimed that NORAD purposely kept the planes there while the towers were struck. Pilot Daniel Nash said that he couldn't recall being told that the North Tower was hit but he did remember seeing the smoke over 70 miles away. They also believe that using NORAD's calculations, the planes were going at 24% speed. The planes probably flew faster but they could not go supersonic as they would've eventually flown over land, which is against FAA regulations. These regulations ban sonic booms from occuring near land. The exception is that the military is allowed to conduct supersonic flight within certain corridors, which are located in the western United States.

Operations Noble Eagle

More than 600 wing members were mobilized for Operation Noble Eagle at different times. The wing began flying around-the-clock combat air patrols missions immediately thereafter, and continued doing so until February 2002. The wing never deployed overseas to support the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq but it did continue to patrol the Northeastern United States skies. The wing converted from the F-15A/B to the F-15C/D in 2004.

BRAC 2005

The BRAC 2005 commission originally planned to close Otis Air National Guard Base and dissolve the 102nd. Locals argued that this would leave a huge gap in the national air defenses. BRAC officials, after visiting the base, decided to keep it open, but the 102nd would still lose its planes, only this time they were only going to the 104th Fighter Wing, based at Barnes Municipal Airport.

The wing hosted its last airshow with the F-15C Eagle at the end of Air Force Week in August, 2007. The wing shared a commonality with the 101st Air Refueling Wing, the 103d Fighter Wing, and the 104th Fighter Wing, which due to BRAC decisions, also changed the type of planes that they flew. Beginning in 2007, the F-15s began moving to Barnes Municipal Airport. With the grounding of the F-15 Eagles, the 158th Fighter Wing, which is based in Vermont temporarily took over the role of patrolling the Northeast's skies. This interruption of the F-15's flight, coinciding with the transitioning of the fighter jets to the 104th Fighter Wing, created some issues. The move was originally scheduled to be completed at the end of January, but the grounding of the F-15's in late 2007 and early 2008 delayed this move to the end of February.

On January 24, 2008, the 102nd Fighter Wing flew its last patrol mission. The unit's wing commander, Colonel Anthony Schiavi, led the flight, accompanied by Major Daniel Nash, who was one of the first responders for 9/11. Fire trucks were on hand when the team landed a half-hour later, giving the planes and the pilots the customary ceremonial hose-down for the last time.

New Mission

As soon as it was announced that the wing would be kept alive and Otis Air National Guard Base would remain open, the state government began thinking of the future for the 102nd. There was talk among the members of the Massachusetts National Guard that it could transition to an intelligence mission so that it could help support the War On Terror. The plans hit a roadblock when it was announced that there were few funds left with which the wing could use to transition into its new mission. [cite web |url= http://www.capecodonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070602/NEWS/706020341 |title= CapeCodTimes.com — New Otis mission in limbo |accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher= Cape Cod Times|date=Date|2008-05-29]

The new mission was finally confirmed when Governor Deval Patrick announced that the wing would transition to an intelligence mission as soon as the planes left.Fact|date=August 2008 Original BRAC plans only said that a Distributed Common Ground Station would be created at Otis.Fact|date=August 2008 These plans didn't include the air guardsmen affected by the loss of their jobs. The issue was finally resolved when the Air Force announced its plans, right before the F-15's started to leave for Barnes.Fact|date=August 2008

On April 1, 2008, the 102nd Fighter Wing was re designated as the 102nd Intelligence Wing, with a formal ceremony on April 6. The wing will reach full operation in 2010. [cite web |url=http://www.capecodonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080407/NEWS/804070326|title=A change of the Guard at Otis|accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher=Massachusetts National Guard|date=Date|2008-04-07] By October 1st, the wing is expected to be operationally ready.

During the time preceding the wing reaching full operational capacity, members of the wing had the option of moving with the F-15s to Barnes. Most members decided to stay behind and train for their new missions. The crash trucks moved with the F-15s to Barnes, leaving the brush breakers of the Massachusetts Military Reservation behind. The buildings formally occupied by the planes will be reused for the intelligence mission by wing members. These buildings include the hangers that the F-15s formally occupied.

Previous designations

Previous designations include: [Rogers, B. (2006). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. ISBN 1-85780-197-0]
*102d Intelligence Wing (2008–Present)
*102d Fighter Wing (1992–2008)
*102d Fighter Interceptor Wing (197?–1992)
**102d Fighter Interceptor Group (197?–1976)
*102d Air Defense Wing (1972–197?)
**102d Air Defense Group (1972–197?)
*102d Tactical Fighter Wing (196?–1972)
**102d Tactical Fighter Group (196?–1972)
*102d Air Defense Wing (1950–196?)
**102d Air Defense Group (1950–196?)
*102d Fighter Wing (1946–1950)
**102d Fighter Group (1946–1950)

Units assigned


The BRAC decision affected only the maintenance unit as it was dissolved, because there are no more planes to fly and thus maintain.
*102d Intelligence Group
**101st Intelligence Squadron (2008–Present)
**Air Support Operation Squadron
*102d Air Operations Group
**202d Weather Flight (1967–Present)
*253d Combat Communications Group
**267th Combat Communications Squadron
*102d Mission Support Group
**102d Civil Engineering Squadron
**102d Communications Squadron
**102d Logistics Readiness Squadron
**102d Security Forces Squadron
**102d Mission Support Flight
**102d Student Pilot Flight
**102d Services Flight
*102d Medical Group
**102d Medical Squadron
*567th Air Force Band

Fighter Wing

Units that were part of the 102d Fighter Wing [cite web |url=http://www.mass.gov/guard/PAO/PAO_Pages_Current_Publications/annual_report.pdf |title=FY05 Annual Report Fina|accessdate=2008-05-29|publisher=Massachusetts National Guard|date=Date|2008-05-29] :
*102d Operations Group
**101st Fighter Squadron (1946–2008)
**102d Operations Support Flight
**202d Weather Flight (1967–Present)
*102d Maintenance Group (???–2008?)
**102d Aircraft Maintenance Squadron
**102d Maintenance Squadron
**102d Maintenance Operations Flight
*102d Mission Support Group
**102d Civil Engineering Squadron
**102d Communications Squadron
**102d Logistics Readiness Squadron
**102d Security Forces Squadron
**102d Mission Support Flight
**102d Services Flight
*102d Medical Group
**102d Medical Squadron

Cold War

Units with the 102d during the deployment to France:
*104th Tactical Fighter Group
**131st Tactical Fighter Squadron
*107th Fighter Interceptor Group
**136th Fighter Interceptor Squadron
*125th Fighter Interceptor Group
**159th Fighter Interceptor Squadron
*147th Fighter Interceptor Group
**111th Fighter Interceptor Squadron
*174th Tactical Fighter GroupHancock Field, New York
**138th Tactical Fighter Squadron
*177th Fighter Interceptor GroupAtlantic City, New Jersey
**119th Fighter Interceptor Squadron

Bases stationed

*Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts (1962–present)
*Leck Air Base (1961)
*Wheelus Air Base (1961)
*Phalsbourg-Bourscheid Air Base (1961–1962)
*Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts (1941–1961)
*Jeffery Field (1921–1941)
*Detachment 1
**Bangor International Airport (1993–2008)
**Loring Air Force Base (1986–1993)



*World Airpower Journal. (1992). US Air Force Air Power Directory. Aerospace Publishing: London, UK. ISBN 1-880588-01-3

External links

* [http://www.ngb.army.mil/news/theonguard/2007/2007-08.pdf "The On Guard" August 2007]
* [http://www.amarcexperience.com/AMARCArticle102ndFW.asp AMARC (AMARC) 102d FW]
* [http://www.philippecolin.net/Updates.html Philippe Aviation Updates]
* [http://www.fencecheck.com/forums/index.php?topic=14681.msg175156 Fencecheck on the 102d]
* [http://www.quizmos.com/F15angE.html Patches for the 102d and 101st]
* [http://www.maotis.ang.af.mil/102fw.htm 102nd Intelligence Wing: Massachusetts Air National Guard]
* [http://www.aircraftresourcecenter.com/Stories1/001-100/028_F-15flight_Middleton/story028.htm Flight With the 102d]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2222205.stm US considered 'suicide jet missions']

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