- Pressure cooking
Pressure cooking is a method of cooking in a sealed vessel that does not permit air or liquids to escape below a preset pressure. Because the
boiling pointof water increases as the pressureincreases, the pressure built up inside the cooker allows the liquid in the pot to rise to a higher temperature before boiling.
Pressure cookers may be referred to by several other names. An early pressure cooker, called a "
steam digester," was invented by Denis Papin, a French physicist, in 1679. Large pressure cookers are often called pressure canners in the United States, due to their capacity to hold jars used in home canning. A version of a pressure cooker used by laboratories and hospitals to sterilize materials is known as an autoclave. In the food industry, pressure cookers are often referred to as retorts.
Pressure cookers are generally made from aluminum or
stainless steel. The former may be stamped and buffed or anodized, but this metal is unsuitable for the dishwasher. Expensive stainless steel pressure cookers are made with heavy, three-ply, or copper-clad bottom ( heat spreader) for uniform heating, since stainless steel has lower thermal conductivity. Most modern units are dishwasher safe, although some manufacturers may recommend washing by hand.
gasketor sealing ring forms an gas-tight seal which does not allow air or steam to escape between the pot and the lid; normally, the only way the steam can escape is through a regulatoron the lid when the pressure has built up. In case the regulator is blocked, a safety valveis provided as a backup escape route for steam. The simplest safety valve is a loose-fitting rubber plug in the lid, held in place by steam pressure. If the pressure exceeds design limits, the plug pops out of its seat.
To seal the gasket, some pressure cookers have a lid lock with flanges, similar to a
bayonet-style lens mount, that works by placing the lid on the pot and twisting it about 30° to lock it in place. Contemporary designs of this style of cooker also have a pressure-activated interlock mechanism that prevents the lid from being removed while the cooker is pressurized. [If the lid could be removed while the contents are boiling under pressure, it would result in a dangerous frothing and explosion of superheated liquid, likely to severely scald any person in the vicinity of the cooker.]
Other cookers, particularly the larger types used for
home canning, have oval, oversized lids. [" [http://www.hawkinscookers.com/downloads/pc_catalog.pdf Hawkins Pressure Cookers] "] With these, since the lid is larger than the opening in the top of the pressure cooker, one inserts the lid at an angle, then turns the lid to align it with pot opening. A spring arrangement straddles the top of the cooker and holds the lid in place. When cooking, the pressurized steam inside keeps the lid tightly in place, preventing accidental removal.
Pressure cookers are usually heavy, because they need to be strong. However, some pressure cookers are manufactured for camping, and can be as light as 1.2 kg for a four-litre pot.
The food to be cooked is placed in the pressure cooker, with a small amount of water. The vessel is then sealed and placed on a heat source, e.g., a stove. As the internal temperature rises, the pressure also rises, until the pressure reaches the design
gauge pressure. In some designs, a reliefvalve opens, releasing steam and preventing the pressure from rising any further. In others, the pressure regulator weight begins levitating on its nozzle, allowing excess steam to escape.
Most pressure cookers have a working pressure setting of about one atmosphere (100 kPa or 15 psi gauge pressure), the standard determined by the
United States Department of Agriculturein 1917. [" [http://www.missvickie.com/workshop/pressure.html All About Pressure Settings] "] At this pressure boost relative to sea-level atmospheric pressure, water boils at 125 °C (257 °F).
The higher temperature causes the food to cook faster; cooking times can typically be reduced by about 70 percent. For example, shredded cabbage is cooked in one minute, fresh green beans in three minutes, small to medium-sized potatoes cook in about eight minutes (depending on thickness and type), and a whole chicken takes only twenty minutes. Brown rice and lentils and beans can be cooked in ten minutes instead of 45.
Pressure cooking is often used to simulate the effects of long
braisingor simmeringin shorter periods of time.
Some pressure cookers have a lower maximum pressure, or can be adjusted to different maximum pressures; cooking times will vary accordingly. This is often done by having different regulator weights.
Since pressure cooking depends on the production of steam, the process cannot easily be used for methods of cooking that produce little steam, such as
roasting, pan fryingor deep frying.
Foods are cooked much faster by pressure cooking than by other methods, (except perhaps microwaves), and with much less water than boiling, so dishes can be ready sooner. Less energy is required than when boiling, steaming or oven cooking. Since less water is necessary, the foods come to cooking temperature faster.
The food is cooked above the boiling point of water, killing bacteria and viruses. The pressure cooker can also be used as an effective sterilizer, for jam pots and glass baby bottles for example, or for water while camping.
With pressure cooking, heat is very evenly, deeply, and quickly distributed.
It is not necessary to immerse food in water: Enough water to keep the pressure cooker filled with steam is sufficient. Because of this, vitamins and minerals are not leached (dissolved) away by water. Since steam surrounds the food, foods are not oxidized by air exposure at heat, so
asparagus, broccoli, and so on retain their bright green colors and vitamins.
The pressure cooker speeds cooking considerably at high altitudes, where the low atmospheric pressure otherwise reduces the boiling point of water and hence reduces water's effectiveness for cooking or preparing hot drinks.
Pressure cookers have a reputation as a dangerous method of cooking with the risk of explosion. Early pressure cookers equipped with only a primary safety valve were at risk of explosion if poorly maintained, allowing food residues to contaminate the release valve. Modern pressure cookers typically have two or three independent safety valves, as well as some additional safety features, such as an interlock to prevent opening the lid while internal pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure.
The primary safety valve or regulator usually takes the form of a weighted stopper, commonly called "the rocker," or "vent weight". This weighted stopper is lifted by the steam pressure, allowing excess pressure to be relieved. There is a backup pressure release mechanism that may employ any of several different techniques to release pressure quickly if the primary pressure release mechanism fails (for example, if food jams the steam discharge path). One such method is in the form of a hole in the lid blocked by a plug of low melting point alloy; another is a rubber grommet with a metal insert at the center. At a sufficiently high pressure, the grommet will distort and the insert will blow out of its mounting hole, relieving the pressure. If the pressure gets still higher, the grommet itself will blow out. A common safety feature is the design of the gasket, which expands and releases excess pressure downward between the lid and the pot.
In some pressure cookers, excess pressure forces the pressure indicator above its housing which releases the pressure vertically upwards.
Use at high altitudes
A pressure cooker is often used by mountain climbers to compensate for the low atmospheric pressure at a very high elevation. Under these circumstances water boils at temperatures significantly below 100 °C and without the use of a pressure cooker, may leave boiled foods undercooked, as described in
Charles Darwin's "Voyage of the Beagle":
There is a lightweight camping/mountaineering pressure cooker which weighs little more than a standard camping pot. [" [http://www.me.ucsb.edu/projects/poster_images07/pdf/153_team_3.pdf Magma Force Backpacking pressure cooker] "]
Use in food detoxification
Some food toxins can be reduced by pressure cooking. A Korean study of
aflatoxins in rice (associated with Aspergillusfungus) showed that pressure cooking was capable of reducing aflatoxin concentrations to 12% to 22% of the level in the uncooked rice. [ [http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20060415/food.asp Food for Thought: Putting the Pressure on Poisons, Science News Online, April 15, 2006 ] ]
Rice cooker, many employ pressure cooking
* [http://www.physics.isu.edu/~knox/papers/cooker.PDF The Physics of Pressure Cooker, Dr. John Knox, Idaho State University]
* [http://www.megaforce.ca/products.php#cooker Electric Pressure Cooker]
* [http://www.gopresto.com/information/school/works.php How pressure cooking works from Presto, a manufacturer.]
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