- Test pilot
Test pilots are
aviators who fly new and modified aircraftin specific maneuvers, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated.
Test pilots may work for military organizations or private, (mostly
aerospace) companies. Testing military aircraft, in particular, is regarded as the most challenging and risky flying conducted in peacetime, and is therefore the pinnacle of military aviation. Risks for test pilots have decreased substantially since the 1960s. In the 1950s, test pilots were being killed at the rate of about one a week, but the risks have shrunk to a fraction of that, thanks to the maturation of aircraft technology, better ground-testing and simulation of aircraft performance, and, lately, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles to test experimental aircraft features. Still, piloting experimental aircraft remains more dangerous than most other types of flying.
A test pilot must be able to:
*Understand a test plan;
*Stick to a test plan, flying a plane in a highly specific way;
*Carefully document the results of each test;
*Have an excellent feel for the aircraft, and sense exactly how it is behaving oddly if it is doing so;
*Solve problems quickly if anything goes wrong with the aircraft during a test;
*Cope with many different things going wrong at once.
Test pilots must have an excellent knowledge of
aeronautical engineering, in order to understand how they are tested and why. Test pilots must be above average pilots with excellent analytical skills and the ability to fly accurately whilst following a flight plan. Thrill-seeking sky-jocks are often not best suited for the job, though this did not stop many of the American pilots during the 1950s, who later became astronauts. Despite their image as fun-loving dare-devils, their flying had to be ruthlessly precise and professional.
Test flying as a systematic activity started during the First World War, at the
Royal Aircraft Establishment(RAE) in the United Kingdom. During the 1920s, test flying was further developed by the RAE in the UK, and by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics(NACA) in the United States. In the 1950s, NACA was transformed into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA. During these years, as work was done into aircraft stability and handling qualities, test flying evolved towards a more qualitative scientific profession.
The world's oldest test pilot school is what is now called the
Empire Test Pilots' School, at RAF Boscombe Downin the UK. In America, the United States Air Force Test Pilot Schoolis located at Edwards Air Force Base, the United States Naval Test Pilot Schoolis located at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland and EPNER(Ecole du Personnel Navigant d'Essai et de Reception/School for flight test and acceptance personnel), the French test pilot school, located in Istres, France. Another School is the private National Test Pilot School, located in Mojave, California.
Notable test pilots
Some notable test pilots include:
Neil Armstrong, X-15 pilot and first man to walk on the moon.
Eric "Winkle" Brown, listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as having flown more aircraft types (487) than any other pilot in the world and first pilot to land a jet aircrafton an aircraft carrier, and also holds the world record for the most carrier landings.
Roland Beamont- for English Electricand BAC flew the Canberra and Lightning and was the first pilot to make a double Atlantic crossing by jet.
Bill Bedford- for Hawker Aircraftflew the Hawker P.1127& Kestrel and later Harrier VTOLjet aircraft.
*Scott Crossfield, Yeager's direct rival and the first pilot known to have reached Mach 2.
*John Cunningham, test-pilot before and after RAF service during WWII. Test-piloted the world's first
jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet. de Havillands chief test pilot after Geoffrey's death.
Boone Guyton- WWII test pilot at Chance-Vought, best known for participation in development of the F4U Corsair, also tested SB2U Vindicator, OS2U Kingfisher, Vought V-173flying pancake, F6U Pirate, and F7U Cutlass.
Geoffrey de Havilland, Jr.- for de Havilland flew the Mosquito and Vampire, killed in the near supersonic de Havilland DH 108.
*Howard Hughes - Notable for test piloting aircraft produced by his company,
Hughes Aircraft, and bought by his airline, TWA. Broke the World Land Plane Speed Record in 1935 and test flew the world's largest airplane, the Spruce Goose, in 1947. Both aircraft were of his own design.
*"Tex" Johnston, who piloted the Boeing 707 prototype,
Hans-Werner Lerche, German WWII test pilot, who flew some 125 captured Allied aircraft as well as many German types, including e.g. Boeing B-17, B-24 Liberator, Avro Lancaster, Short Stirling, Messerschmitt 109, Messerschmitt 262, Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Dornier Do-335 Heinkel He 177and many others.
*Anthony W. "Tony" LeVier, air racer and test pilot for the
Mike Melvill, first privately funded pilot in space.
*Alfred "Paul" Metz, chief test pilot of the Northrop/McDonnell Douglas Advanced Tactical Fighter YF-23A Black Widow II, receiving the Iven C. Kincheloe Award for his work on the ATF, and later chief test pilot of the first Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics
F-22 Raptor(Raptor 4001), piloting the first flight of each. Member and past president of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots.
*Tom Morgenfeld, chief test pilot for Lockheed Martin's
Skunk worksand the Joint Strike Fighter.
John Lankester Parker, British test pilot and Chief Test Pilot for Short Brothers, the world's first aircraft manufacturing company, from 1916 until 1945. During this time he flew every Shorts aircraft type, i.e. including the Short Sunderlandand the Short Stirling, on its maiden test flight.
Hanna Reitsch, the German female test pilot of the V-1 flying bombprogram.
Ewald Rohlfsof Germany, who made the first flight of a helicopter, the Focke-Wulf Fw 61.
*RAF Flt Lt PEG
Gerry Sayer, test pilot of Britain's first jet aircraft, Sir Frank Whittle's GlosterE.28/39, in 1941.
Brian Trubshawfor Vickers-Armstrongand then BAC - test pilot on Concorde,
*Joe Walker, X-15 pilot, first to reach the internationally-recognized
boundary to spacein a spaceplane.
George Welch, a test pilot for North American Aviation, whom some contest broke the sound barrier before Yeager.
Fritz Wendel, Messerschmitt's chief test pilot, who broke the world speed record with the Messerschmitt 209 and first flew the Messerschmitt 262, the world's first operational jet fighter.
*Brigadier General Charles E. "Chuck" Yeager (USAF - Retired), the first pilot known to have broken the sound barrier and perhaps the most commonly cited example.
Janusz Żurakowski- postwar test pilot for Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishmentat Boscombe Down, test pilot for Gloster Aircraftcompany and Avro Aircraft Ltd., flew Gloster Meteor, Gloster Javelinand Avro CF-105 Arrowamong others.
Awards made to notable test pilots include the international
Iven C. Kincheloe Awardmade by the Society of Experimental Test Pilots..
*Empire Test Pilots Training School, UK (the first Test Pilots School)
*United States Air Force Test Pilot School
National Test Pilot School, U.S. civilian school
Edwards Air Force Base
United States Naval Test Pilot School
Naval Air Station Patuxent River
Air Force Test Pilot School Bangalore India
*"The Right Stuff" by
*Hallion, Richard P."Test Pilots: Frontiersmen of Flight". Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8094-3326-8.
* [http://www.setp.org/ The Society of Experimental Test Pilots]
* [http://www.asiaing.com/the-smell-of-kerosene-a-test-pilot-s-odyssey.html "The Smell of Kerosene: A Test Pilot’s Odyssey"] , By Donald L. Mallick with Peter W. Merlin, The NASA History Series. 2003.
* [http://www.sfte.org/ Society of Flight Test Engineers]
* [http://www.qinetiq.com/ix_etps.html Empire Test Pilots School] , United Kingdom
* [http://www.edwards.af.mil/tps/ U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School] , Edwards AFB, California
* [http://www.usntps.navy.mil/ U.S. Naval Test Pilot School] , NAS Patuxent River, Maryland
* [http://epner.free.fr/ École du Personnel Navigant d'Essais et de Réception] , France's test pilot school (unofficial site, in French)
* [http://www.defense.gouv.fr/dga/archives/l_epner_ecole_du_personnel_navigant_d_essais_et_de_reception/ EPNER]
* [http://www.davidsiddall.com/testflyingmemorial/1945onwards.htm Memorial website for test pilots who died in flying accidents in the UK between 1939 and 1970]
* [http://www.dnd.ca/aete/default_e.asp/ Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment] , Canadian Flight Test Centre
* [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/Info/AFTPS.html Indian Air Force Test Pilots School] , Bangalore
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.