- History of Penang
The history of Penang is closely related to the
history of Kedah. Penangwas previously part of the sultanate of Kedah until it became a British possession in 1786. It later gained independence as part of the Federation of Malayain 1957.
Sixteenth century Portuguese traders from
Goa, Indiasailing to the Far Eastin search of spicesfound a small island where they replenished their water supplies. They named it "Pulo Pinaom". In the 17th century, Penang’s location at the northern entry to the Straits of Malaccaprovided a sheltered harbour for Chinese, Indian, Arabian and European ships during the monsoon months; this, in turn, inevitably made it fertile hunting ground for pirates.
One of the very first Englishmen to reach Penang was the merchant-navigator Sir
James Lancasterwho in 1588served under Sir Francis Drakeas commander of the "Edward Bonadventure" against the nemesis of the Spanish Armada. On April 10, 1591, commanding the same ship, he set sail from Plymouthfor the East Indies, reaching Penang in June 1592, remaining on the island until September of the same year and pillaging every vessel he encountered. He returned to Englandin May 1594.
Originally part of the Malay sultanate of
Kedah, Penang was ceded to the British East India Companyin 1786by the Sultan of Kedah, in exchange for military protection from Siamese and Burmese armies who were threatening Kedah. On 11 August 1786, Captain Francis Light, known as the founder of Penang, hoisted the Union Jackthereby taking formal possession of Penang and renamed it Prince of Wales Island (name used until after 1867) in honour of the heir to the British throne. Penang was the first British possession in the Malay Statesand Southeast Asia.
The location of the island at the opening of the
Straits of Malaccaattracted the British East India Companyto use the island as a natural harbourand anchorage for their trading ships, and as a naval base to counter growing French ambitions in the region. The settlement on the north-eastern tip of the island was named George Town after King George III of Great Britain.
Unbeknownst to the Sultan, Light had acted without the approval of the East India Company when he promised military protection. When the Company failed to aid Kedah when it was attacked by Thai, the Sultan tried to retake the island in
1790. The attempt was unsuccessful, and the Sultan was forced to cede the island to the Company for an honorariumof 6,000 Spanish dollars per annum. This was later increased to 10,000 dollars, with Province Wellesley(Seberang Prai) being added to Penang in 1800. An annual honorarium of 18,800 ringgitcontinues to be paid by the Penang State Government to the Sultan of Kedah [http://www.tourismpenang.gov.my/page.cfm?name=ap03] .
The settlement was first built around the harbour with
Fort Cornwallisforming the island's defence. Light became the first Superintendent of the Prince of Wales Island. To expedite jungle clearing by labourers, Light fired silver coins from his ship cannons into the dense vegetation, and the land was cleared in no time. The original four streets of George Town were Beach Street, Light Street, Pitt Street (now Masjid Kapitan Keling Street) and Chulia Street, all of which still form the main thoroughfares of the modern city. Other early roads include Church Street, Bishop Street, China Street and Market Street, and by the early 1800s also Armenian Street and Acheen Street.
Light declared Prince of Wales Island a
free portto attract trade away from the Dutch who were then the colonial ruler of the Dutch East Indies. This strategy drew many immigrant traders to Penang. Settlers were allowed to claim whatever land they could clear. By 1789, Penang had 5,000 residents and this doubled by the end of the following decade. The first Chinese settlers in Penang came from an existing community in Kedah, with their leader, called a "Kapitan Cina", being Koh Lay Huan, a Baba. [http://worldfacts.us/Malaysia-Penang.htm]
Light died of
malariaon October 21, 1794and was buried at the Protestantcemetery at the end of Northam Road (now Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah). His son, William Lightwent on to found the city of Adelaidein Australia. Lieutenant-ColonelArthur Wellesley (the future Duke of Wellington) arrived in Penang to coordinate the island's defences. In 1800, Lieutenant-GovernorSir George Leithsecured a strip of land across the channel from the island and named it Province Wellesley, after Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, Governor-General of India[http://www.answers.com/topic/richard-wellesley-1st-marquess-wellesley] .
Early in the
19th century, Penang was used as a staging post for the opiumtrade between Indiaand China. The East India Company auctioned off licences to gambling dens, brothelsand opium traders (this alone accounted for approximately 60% of colonial Penang's revenue.)
1805, Penang's colonial status was elevated to that of a Residency. Stamford Rafflesarrived in Penang to work as the Deputy Secretary to the Governor of Penang, Philip Dundasfrom 1805 to 1810 [http://ptga.org.my/textpublisher/textpublisher.cgi?id=39] and subsequently founded Singaporein 1819.
1826, Penang, along with Malaccaand Singapore, became part of the Straits Settlementsunder the British administration in India, later coming under direct British rule in 1867as a Crown Colony. George Town became the capital of the Straits Settlementsbut its status was soon supplanted by rapidly developing Singaporewhose importance eclipsed Penang's.
List of Governors of the Straits Settlements"
Penang was rocked by the
Penang Riotsof 1867which were nine days of heavy street fighting and bloodshed among the secret societiesof Penang which spiralled out of the British control, only to be put down with arrival of reinforcements from Singapore. The two principal Chinese secret societies - Cantonese-speaking Ghee Hin and Hakka-speaking Hai San(see Chung Keng Quee)- resented each other over commercial interests, especially in the lucrative tin-mining industry. Today's Cannon Street was so named because of the hole made on the ground from cannon balls fired into the area from Khoo Kongsi. Consequently, the British afforded greater involvement and gradually restored peace and civility. The opening of Suez Canalin 1869 greatly expanded British trade with the Far East. Colonial Penang prospered through tinand rubberwhich fed the relentless demands of the Industrial Revolutionin Britain. Penang's prosperity attracted people from far and wide, making Penang truly a melting pot of diverse cultures. Apart from the Malays, Chinese and Indians, there were communities of Armenians, Jews, Siamese, Burmese, Germans, Swiss, Arabs, Achehnese and other Sumatrans. Though many of them no longer impose a felt presence today, their memory lives on in place names like Burma Road, Rangoon Road, Siam Road, Armenian Street, Acheen Street, Gottlieb Road, Katz Street and the Jewish Cemetery, to name a few.
Cosmopolitan Penang was already a thriving colony of the
British Empirein the first decades of the 20th century, counting among its eminent visitors Somerset Maugham, Joseph Conrad, Rudyard Kipling, Noel Coward, Herman Hesse, Karl May, Count Friedrich M. von Hochbergand Hans Sturzenegger.
Battle of Penangthat took place on October 28, 1914 during World War Isaw the surprise naval assault in which the German cruiser. Otherwise, Penang was relatively unaffected by the Great War. A war memorial commemorating fallen World War I soldiers can be found in Esplanade.
econd World War
World War II, on the other hand, unleashed unparalleled social upheaval on Penang. With news of the imminent attack of the Japanese, the European population was evacuated beforehand, leaving the rest of Penang's population to suffer under a brutal Japanese occupation, causing much disillusionment and injury to the British prestige and image of invincibility. The British withdrawal left the defenceless island in the hands of a State Committee which had to subdue a three-day civil unrest. Penang was captured by Japanese forces invading from the north through
Thailandon 19 December 1941, one of the key stages of the Battle of Malaya, days after having neutralised American sea power at Pearl Harbor. Three and a half years of rule of terror ensued. Many of the local populace fled to the interior and plantations to escape from Japanese atrocities, of which many were reported and documented. During this occupation, Penang was governed by four successive Japanese governors, starting with Shotaro Katayama.
It is a little known fact that Penang served as a secret German
U-boatbase in the Far East. U-511, under the command of Kptlt. Fritz Schneewind, arrived in Penang, then under Japanese occupation in July 1943, followed by U-178 in August 1943 [http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://uboat.net/men/photos/timm.jpg&imgrefurl=http://uboat.net/ops/monsun3.htm&h=287&w=199&sz=11&hl=en&start=1&tbnid=5zmmHTD87jCc6M:&tbnh=110&tbnw=76&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpenang%2Bu%2Bboat%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DRNWE,RNWE:2005-46,RNWE:en] . This essentially started the U-boat campaign in the Indian Ocean and also provided the Germans with penetration into the Pacific for the first time, alongside their ally, Japan. KK Wilhelm Dommesbecame the first commander of the U-boat base in Asia. [http://www.uboataces.com/articles-fareast-boats2.shtml]
Japanese forces in Penang finally surrendered to British forces on
6 September 1945. George Town's historic buildings remarkably survived virtually unscathed despite Alliedbombings. Before civilian rule returned to Penang, the state was administered by two successive British military governors from 1945-1946.
The political landscape had changed irreversibly in the aftermath of the war. The end of British imperialism seemed impendent, even inevitable. In
1946, the Straits Settlements were dissolved, with Sir Shenton Thomasbeing the last governor, and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, before becoming in 1948a state of the Federation of Malaya, which gained independence in 1957. In 1963it became one of the 13 states of Malaysia.
George Town was accorded
citystatus by Queen Elizabeth II on January 1, 1957, thereby becoming the first town in the then Federation of Malaya after Singapore to become a city. The royal charter granting George Town its city status and the petition from the Penang residents to Queen Elizabeth II in this regard are still prominently displayed in the Penang State Museum. However, as a result of local government reorganisations in 1976, the City Council of George Town was merged with the neighbouring Penang Rural District Council to form the Municipal Council of Penang Island. [http://www.mppp.gov.my/english/home.htm] Although the city status was never officially revoked, the state and federal governments are of the view that it has ceased to exist.
On August 31, 1957, Penang formally became part of the newly-independent
Federation of Malaya("Persekutuan Tanah Melayu") and in 1963, also became a member state of Malaysia. From independence till 1969, Penang was administered by Chief Minister Tan Sri Wong Pow Neefrom the Malaysian Chinese Association(MCA), one of the three principal political parties which made up the Alliance Party ruling coalition. In 1969, however, Penang was captured by the Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia party which garnered 16 out of 24 seats in the State Assembly. Its founder, Tun Dato' Seri Dr Lim Chong Eubecame Penang's second Chief Minister. Following the May 13, 1969 riots which ensued from the General Elections, parliamentary rule was suspended and the government was taken over by the National Operations Council. Only in April 1971 was the democratic government restored. Gerakanjoined the ruling coalition on February 13, 1972 and has continued to govern Penang to this day.
free portstatus was revoked in 1969which dealt a considerable blow to Penang's trading industry which was followed by massive unemployment as high as 14.5% [http://www.gerakan.org.my/public/newsletter/page11.htm] . Despite this, from the 1970sto the late 1990sthe state built up one of the largest electronics manufacturing bases in Asia, in the Bayan LepasFree Industrial Zone (FIZ) around the airport in the south of the island. This move is now seen as monumental to the economic growth of Penang, today an economic powerhouse of Malaysia. The Penang Bridge was also built during Dr Lim's tenure.
Subsequent to Dr Lim's shock defeat in his Padang Kota constituency to DAP's
Lim Kit Siangin the 1990 General Elections, he retired from politics but his party managed to hold on to power. He was succeeded by the incumbent Tan Sri Dr Koh Tsu Koon.
In 2004, widespread dissatisfaction with the decline of Penang has led to a media campaign to return Penang to its former glory. [http://thestar.com.my/news/archives/story.asp?ppath=/2004/12/16/nation/9673098&sec=nation] Challenges faced by the government include the urban renewal of Inner George Town which has seen population and commercial activities dwindling since the repeal of the Rent Control Act in 2000, as well as job creation.
Penang suffered some damage from the
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, though nothing in the scale of neighbouring Acheh- incurring most of the 68 lives lost in Malaysia, mostly picnickers and fishermen. Some 1,600 people were evacuated. Economically, the fisheries and aquaculture were the worst-hit sectors, with losses in the order of tens of millions of ringgit [http://www.streaminitiative.org/pdf/050114MalaysiaCR.pdf] .
Opposition Takes Over Penang
In the 2008 Malaysian General Elections, the opposition coalition of DAP, PAS and PKR managed to garner 29 seats out of 40 seats in the Penang State Assembly to the incumbent Barisan Nasional government's 11.
Lim Guan Eng, the DAP general secretary became the next Chief Minister of Penang. He began introducing several measures such as giving a one-time waiver of summonses issued by local councils and abandoning the New Economic Policy measures by the state administration. [ [http://www.straitstimes.com/Latest+News/Asia/STIStory_216040.html Latest News ] ]
Owing to its long colonial history, many British colonial buildings can still be seen today. Such buildings include the City Hall, the Town Hall, the
Eastern & Oriental Hotel(popularly known as the E. & O., established 1884), "The Mansion", the Old Court House, Suffolk House built upon the pepper estate established by the first lieutenant for the island Francis Light and built by W.E.Phillips and subsequently used by governors until 1836 when it fell into private hands. Governors of the Straits Settlements, Uplands International School building, Standard Chartered Bankbuilding, ABN Bank building and the HSBCBank building. Local conservationists are lobbying the state government to restore many other historical buildings but regrettably a number of them have dilapidated beyond repair.
Indeed many public institutions and customs in Penang and Malaysia in general today are inherited and modified from the British such as formal education, use of English language, English loanwords, transportation systems - harbour, roads, railroads; form of government (
Westminstersystem), English Common Law, and leisure - turf club, recreation clubs.
Interestingly, in comparison to Kuala Lumpur (see
list of roads in Kuala Lumpur), Penang still retains many colonial street names. These include King Street, Queen Street, Beach Street, Union Street, Light Street, Downing Street, Anson Road, Macalister Road, Magazine Road, Love Lane, Rope Walk, Gurney Drive, Weld Quay, Buckingham Street, Corrington Avenue, Gottlieb Road, Vermont Road and Western Avenue. Although many streets have been given 'Malaysian' names such as Jalan Mesjid Kapitan Kling, it is often better known locally by its former name - Pitt Street. Other notable names of suburbs and places are Fettes Park, Hillside, Island Glades, Brown Garden and Jesselton Heights.
In all of these maintenance of colonial heritage, UNESCO awarded
George Town, as well as another Straits Historical City of Malacca Townthe title of UNESCO World Heritage Site(s).
British control over Penang led directly to great growth both in the size and the diversity of Penang's population. In addition to small numbers of European settlers and immigrants from Siam and Burma, two new groups immigrated to Penang from India and China.
In a dispatch of 1794, Francis Light said that the Chinese constituted the most valuable and largest group acting as traders, carpenters, masons, smiths, shopkeepers and planters on the island. From an early date, the Chinese specialized in the production and trade of tin. Some emigrants from the provinces of
Guangdongand Fujianinvolved themselves in sugar-cane and pepper cultivation, in which the native Malays had shown no interest. Others acted as middlemen merchants (functioning more or less in the nature of agency house) for foreign traders engaged in export-import activities. Their contributions lay in shipping merchandise for various foreign destinations. Still other Chinese worked in the importation of ethnice foods which they cooked and sold to other recent settlers.
Already in the 1790s, Light mentions Chulias (that is, people from the
Coromandel Coastof India) as shopkeepers and farm laborers in Penang. Light estimated that about two thousand men came to work in this manner each year; however, in contrast to the Chinese, these laborers did not settle permanently in Penang. They would, rather, work for long enough to save money and then return to their families in south India. This group of migrants comprised the ‘Adi Dravidas,’ a group of impoverished laborers originating in the hinterlands of the Tamil country and Andhra Desa who, facing insufficient work in their homeland, went abroad for survival.
Another class of Indian migrants was a class of people hailing from the Kaveri delta areas (from the Ramnad district of Madras) known as ‘Nattukottai Chettiars’ who were by occupation money-lenders. Their presence in Penang and elsewhere where plantations sprang up aided merchants, miners, and planters, as these Chettiars were advancing required working capital in the absence of any effective banks. Light also encouraged migration by the
Chettiarcommunity as part of his plan to create a cash economy on Penang.
Unlike the Tamil migrants, Telugu migrants from the northern Coromandel Coast came to Penang as families. For this reason, many did not leave when their work terms expired, but rather continued working on plantations or as merchants. Over 15,00,000 south Indians who worked in Malayan plantations, more than three-fourths returned to India, nearly all of them Tamil.
Beginning with Light, Penange boasted a tradition of religious tolerance; all races could pra-ctice their respective religious faith and thus was achieved social stability in a multi-racial society.
Racial climate since independence
Penang entered independence with a tradition of multiethnic peace and cooperation. However, the British habit of separating ethnic communities led to incipient tensions that have since grown. In particular, the tendency to support Malays in government, and Chinese and India in trade and manufacturing, has led to significant divisions in the island's sociopolitics.
In 1967, in response to an unpopular decision to devalue the currency, the opposition Labour Party called for a "hartal", or strike. This strike turned violent, with five people killed in Penang on its first day. Furthermore, although originally multiethnic, the violence quickly assumed interracial overtones, with politicians airing grievances and even calling for more violence. The tension spread to the coast and even to the capital, where timely intervention by the Army was required to prevent a more general spread of violence. When the national situation had calmed, the national government of
Tunku Abdul Rahmanimprisoned leaders charged with inciting violence, but declined to outlaw the Labour Party.
*Kernial Singh Sandhu. "Indians in Malaya-immigration and settlement,'. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1969, 29pg.
*Sinnappah, Anasanatnam. "Indians in Malaysia and Singapore." Oxford University Press, Kulala Lumpur, 1979, 19pg.
*Nancy Snider. "What Happened in Penang." "Asian Survey" 12 (1968), 960-975.
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