- Borna disease
name = "Borna disease virus"
virus_group = v
ordo = "
familia = "
genus = "
type_species = "Borna disease virus"::"BDV redirects here, for Big Daddy V see
Nelson Frazier, Jr."
Borna disease is an infectious
neurologicalsyndrome of warm-bloodedanimals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. Originally identified in sheepand horses in Europe, it has since been found to occur in a wide range of warm-blooded animals including birds, cattle, cats and primates and has been found in animals in Europe, Asia, Africaand North America. The name is derived from the town of Bornain Saxony, Germany, which suffered an epidemic of the disease in horses in 1885.
Borna disease in sheep and horses arises after a four week incubation period followed by the development of immune-mediated
meningitisand encephalomyelitis. Clinical manifestations vary but may include excited or depressed behaviour, ataxia, ocular disorders and abnormal posture and movement. Mortality rates are 80-100% in horses and greater than 50% in sheep.
Borna disease in the horse gives rise to signs like:
- Unusual posture, gait and ear positions
- Movement Disturbances (principally
ataxiaor excess movement)
- "Pipe smoking" - hay or straw in mouth, but no chewing
The causative agent of Borna disease, "Borna disease virus" (BDV) is a
neurotropic virusand is the sole member of the "Bornaviridae" family within the " Mononegavirales" order. It has the smallest genome(8.9 kilobases) of any "Mononegavirales" species and is unique within that order in its ability to replicate within the host cell nucleus.
Although the virus is mainly seen as the causative agent of borna disease in
horses and other animals, recent findings have implicated that borna virus may play a role in some human neurological and psychiatric conditions including bipolar disorderand depression.
The mode of transmission of BDV is unclear but probably occurs through intranasal exposure to contaminated
salivaor nasal secretions. Following infection, individuals may develop Borna disease, or may remain subclinical, possibly acting as a carrier of the virus.
BDV also infects humans and is therefore considered to be a zoonotic agent. The role of BDV in human illness is controversial and it is yet to be established whether BDV causes any overt disease in humans. However, correlative evidence exists linking BDV infection with neuropsychiatric disorders such as
Borna virus was isolated from a diseased horse in the 1970s, but the virus particles were difficult to characterise. Nonetheless, the virus'
genomehas been characterised. It is a linear negative-sense single stranded RNA virusin the order of the mononegavirales. This order contains the family of lyssaviruses which includes the viruses responsible for rabies. A new family named the bornaviridae was created to hold this virus.
Effects in other species
Borna virus appears to have a wide host range, having been detected in
horses, cattle, sheep, dogs and foxes. In 1995, the virus was isolated from cats suffering from a "staggering disease" in Sweden. Since that time, the virus has also been detected in cats in Japanand Britain.
Germany, Japanand the USAthe virus has been detected in humans, and it has a controversial association with human disease, particularly of the psychiatric kind.
Experimental infection of
rats has been demonstrated to lead to learning impairments and altered social behaviour. The virus appears to be distributed primarily in the limbic systemof the brain, including the hippocampusand entorhinal cortex. These areas of the brain are considered to be of importance in emotion.
Bornaviruses enter the host by
endocytosis. After this virushas entered its host it is taken up by endosomes. Replication of the bornavirus occurs inside the nucleus. This is the only viruswithin the order Mononegaviralesto do this. Bornaviruses have negative sense RNA genomes. The negative sense RNAis copied to make a positive sense RNA template. This template is then used to synthesise many copies of the negative sense RNA genome. This is like making copies of a mold, and then using these molds to make many many more viruses.
Borna Virus as an agent of human disease
The first antibodies to Borna virus in humans were discovered in the mid-1980s. Since then, there have been conflicting results from various studies in regards to whether an association exists between the agent and clinical disease. Antibodies to Borna virus, which indicate prior infection, and Borna virus antigen have also been detected in blood donors.
Some other evidence cited in favour of the idea that borna virus could be responsible for human psychiatric disease includes the fact that the drug
Amantadine, which is used to treat influenzainfections, has had some success in treating depression. Nonetheless, there are counter-claims that borna virus infections are not cleared by amantadine. The issue is further complicated by the fact that amantadine is also used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, so may have direct effects on the nervous system.
The link between borna virus and human psychiatric disease is not yet conclusively proven, and there is much controversy among researchers about the validity of claims made. A recent study [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1034/j.1601-5215.2003.00043.x/abs/] found no borna virus antibodies in 62 patients with the deficit form of schizophrenia. Interestingly, the majority of studies to date do lead to an association between the viral agent and human psychiatric disorders, however there exists a widely acknowledged bias in the sciences toward publishing "positive" rather than "negative" findings, i.e. studies that fail to confirm hypothetical relationships.
The interest group should be limited to the Index which does have Borna Disease Virus (BDV) and psychiatric disorders. BDV interferes with normal interneuronal communication.
In the early 90's researchers in America and Japan conducted a 1000-subject investigation in which patients with psychiatric disorders were tested for BDV antibodies.Fact|date=May 2008 According to the study, 768 patients suffering from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia tested positive for the antibodies, while 300 control subjects tested negative.Fact|date=May 2008 Further studies were planned in Germany, at the Robert Koch Institute, Berlin and Hanover Medical School and potentially in Belgium as well. Fact|date=May 2008
*cite journal |author=Bode L, Ludwig H |title=Borna disease virus infection, a human mental-health risk |journal=Clin. Microbiol. Rev. |volume=16 |issue=3 |pages=534–45 |year=2003 |pmid=12857781 |pmc=164222 |doi= |url=http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12857781
*cite journal |author=Kamhieh S, Flower RL |title=Borna disease virus (BDV) infection in cats. A concise review based on current knowledge |journal=Vet Q |volume=28 |issue=2 |pages=66–73 |year=2006 |pmid=16841569 |doi= |url=http://www.vetline.nl/qsites/files/000001327/73200673518PMkamhieh2.pdf
*cite book |author=Lipkin, W. I.; Koprowski, Hilary |title=Borna disease |publisher=Springer-Verlag |location=Berlin |year=1995 |pages= |isbn=3-540-57388-7 |series=Current topics in microbiology and immunology |volume=190 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=
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