- Lake Huron
lake_name =Lake Huron
caption_bathymetry = Map of Lake Huron and the other
coords = coord|44.8|N|82.4|W|type:waterbody_scale:5000000_region:CA/US|display=inline,title
type = Glacial
Straits of Mackinac, St. Marys River
St. Clair River
basin_countries = Canada, United States
length = convert|206|mi|abbr=on
width = convert|152|mi|abbr=on
area = convert|23010|sqmi|abbr=on
depth = convert|195|ft|abbr=on
max-depth = convert|750|ft|abbr=on
volume = convert|849|cumi|km3|abbr=on
shore = convert|3825|mi|abbr=on
elevation = convert|577|ft|abbr=on
residence_time = 22 years
islands = Manitoulin
islands_category = Islands in the Great Lakes
Bay City, Michigan Alpena, Michigan Cheboygan, Michigan St. Ignace, Michigan Port Huron, Michigan Goderich, Ontario Sarnia, Ontario
reference = cite book | first=John W. (ed.) | last=Wright | coauthors=Editors and reporters of "The New York Times" | year=2006 | title=The New York Times Almanac | edition=2007 | publisher=Penguin Books | location=New York, New York | id=ISBN 0-14-303820-6 | pages=64] Lake Huron, bounded on the west by the
U.S. stateof Michigan, and on the east by the province of Ontario, Canada, is one of the five Great Lakesof North America. The name of the lake is derived from early French explorers who named it based on the Huronpeople inhabiting the region.
Lake Huron is the second-largest of the Great Lakes, with a surface area of 23,010 square miles (59,596 km²)—nearly the size of
West Virginia, making it the third largest fresh water lake on earth (4th largest lake if the saline Caspian Seais included). It contains a volume of 850 cubic miles (3,540 km³), and a shoreline length of 3,827 miles (6,157 km).
The surface of Lake Huron is 577 feet (176 m) above
sea level. The lake's average depth is 195 feet (59 m), while the maximum depth is 750 feet (229 m). It has a length of 206 miles (332 km) and a breadth of 183 miles (245 km) at its greatest width.
A notable feature of the lake is
Manitoulin Island, which separates the North Channel and Georgian Bayfrom Lake Huron's main body of water. It is the world's largest freshwater island.
Lake Huron is separated from
Lake Michigan, which lies at the same level, and connects by the narrow Straits of Mackinac, making them geologically and hydrologically the same body of water (sometimes called Lake Michigan-Huron). Lake Superioris slightly higher than both. It drains into the St. Marys River at Sault Ste. Mariewhich then flows southward into Lake Huron. The water then flows south to the St. Clair River, at Port Huron, Michiganand Sarnia, Ontario.
Great Lakes Waterwaycontinues thence to Lake St. Clair; the Detroit Riverand Detroit, Michigan; into Lake Erieand thence--via Lake Ontarioand the St. Lawrence River--to the Atlantic Ocean.
Like the other Great Lakes, it was formed by melting ice as the continental glaciers retreated.
Since its French discoverers knew nothing as yet of the other lakes, they called it La Mer Douce, the fresh-water sea. A Sanson map in 1656 refers to the lake as Karegnondi, which means simply 'Lake' in the Petan Indian language. [ [http://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3677-15930--,00.html Origin of names of the Great Lakes] ]
Lake Huron was generally labeled "Lac des Hurons" (Lake of the
Huron Indians) on most early maps.
torm of 1913
On November 9, 1913, a great storm rolled across Lake Huron and with it, 235 seamen died, ten ships sank and another twenty plus were driven ashore. The storm raged for sixteen hours. [True Tales of the Great Lakes, by Dwight Boyer; p212]
The Matoa had passed between
Port Huron, Michiganand Sarnia, Ontariojust after midnight. On the 9th, just after six in the morning, the Senator pushed upstream. Less than an hour later, the Manola passed through. Captain Frederick W. Light of the Manola reported that both the Canadian and the American weather stations had storm signals flying from their weather towers. [True Tales of the Great Lakes, by Dwight Boyer; p266] Following behind at 7:00 a.m. that Sunday, the Regina steamed out of Sarnia into the northwest gale. The warnings now had been up for four hours [True Tales of the Great Lakes, by Dwight Boyer; p268] The Manola passed the Regina off Port Sanilac, 22 miles up the lake. Captain Light determined that if it continued to deteriorate, he would seek shelter at Harbor Beach, Michigan, another 30 miles up lake. There, he could seek shelter behind the breakwater. Before reaching Harbor Beach, the winds turned to the northeast and the sea began to rise. It would be noon before he reached Harbor Beach and ran for shelter. The seas were so violent that the Manola touched bottom entering the harbor. With help from a tug the Manola tied up to the break wall with eight lines. It was about 3:00 p.m. that Sunday that the Manola was tied down and the crew prepared to drop anchor. As they worked, the cables began to snap from winds pressure against the hull. To keep from being pushed aground, they kept their bow into the wind with the engines running half to full in turns. Yet the ship still drifted 800 feet before they arrested the drift. [Freshwater Fury by Frank Barcus, pg 72] The waves broke over the ship and the windows were broken out. The seas were so rough; that the crew reported seeing the cement break wall was move and chunks of cement peeled off. [True Tales of the Great Lakes, by Dwight Boyer, pg 269]
Meanwhile, fifty miles further up the lake, the Matoa, and Captain Hugh McLeod had to ride out the storm without a safe harbor. [True Tales of the Great Lakes, by Dwight Boyer, pg 272,3] The Matoa would be found stranded on the
Port Austinreef when the winds subsided. [Shipwrecks of Lake Huron . . . The Great Sweetwater Sea, Jack Parker, Avery Color Studios, Au Train, Michigan, 1986, pg 56] It was Monday noon before the winds let up and not until 11:00 p.m. Monday night before Capt. Light determined it to be safe to continue his journey. [Freshwater Fury by Frank Barcus, pg 73]
hipwrecks of Lake Huron
Over 1000 wrecks lie under the waters of
Lake Huron, including the first vessel to travel the great lakes. The Griffon built in 1679 on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, near Buffalo, New York, Sieur de la Sallenavigated across Lake Erie, up the Detroit River, Lake St. Clairand the St. Clair Riverout into Lake Huron. Passing the Straits of Mackinac, La Salle and the Griffon made land fall on Washington Island, the off the tip of the Door Peninsulaon Wisconsin’s side of Lake Michigan. Here, the La Salle filled the Griffon with pelts and in late November 1679 sent the Griffon back to Buffalo, never to be seen again. Two wrecks have been identified as the Griffon, although neither has gained credit as the actual wreck. Blown by a fierce storm after leaving, the Griffin ran before the storm. The people of Manitoulin Islandsay that the wreck in Mississagi Straits at the western tip of the island is the Griffon. Meanwhile, others near Tobermorysay that the wreck on Russell Island, 150 miles further east in Georgian Bayis the Griffin. [Shipwrecks of Lake Huron . . . The Great Sweetwater Sea, Jack Parker, Avery Color Studios, Au Train, Michigan, 1986, pg 25-6]
185 of 1000+ wrecks [Shipwrecks of Lake Huron . . . The Great Sweetwater Sea, Jack Parker, Avery Color Studios, Au Train, Michigan, 1986, pg 50-61] are within the waters of Saginaw Bay.
Matoa, A propeller freighter, 2,311gross tons, built 1890, Cleveland, wrecked, 1913, Port Austin Reef [Shipwrecks of Lake Huron . . . The Great Sweetwater Sea, Jack Parker, Avery Color Studios, Au Train, Michigan, 1986, pg 56]
Georgian Bay, North Channel
212 of 1000+ wrecks [Shipwrecks of Lake Huron . . . The Great Sweetwater Sea, Jack Parker, Avery Color Studios, Au Train, Michigan, 1986, pg 65-77] of Lake Hurons wrecks are within the
Georgian Bay. The Bay is the largest bay on Lake Huron. With its 30,000 islands, it offers recreational interest and dangers for all ships passing through.
Manola, a propeller freighter of 2,325 gross tons. Built in 1890, by the Globe Shipping Company of
Cleveland, Ohio. Operated by the Minnesota Steamship Company (Cleveland) from 1890-1901, by the Pittsburgh Steamship Company from 1901-1918. On January 25, 1918, the Manola was sold to the U.S. Shipping Board. It was sold again in 1920 to the Canada Steamship Lines, Ltd and renamed the Mapledawn. It became stranded on November 20, 1924 on Christian Island [Shipwrecks of Lake Huron . . . The Great Sweetwater Sea, Jack Parker, Avery Color Studios, Au Train, Michigan, 1986, pg 71] in Georgian Bay. It was headed for Port McNichol, Ontario. It was declared a total loss after two weeks. Salvagers were able to recovered c.75,000 bushels of barley for delivery to Midland, Ontario. [Great Lakes Vessels Index; Historical Collections of the Great Lakes; Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio]
Lake Huron has a
lake retention timeof 22 years.
Lake Huron is home to a variety of fish and plant life, such as the now extinct
Deepwater cisco, many of them being home to the other Great Lakessuch as carp, chinook salmon, a variety of panfish, bass, pike, and catfish. Lake Huron along with the other great lakes have suffered recently due the introduction of various invasive species.
Les Cheneaux Islands
Shipwrecks of the 1913 Great Lakes stormand List of victims of the 1913 Great Lakes storm
Great Lakes in General
Great Lakes Areas of Concern
Great Lakes census statistical areas
Great Lakes Commission
Great Recycling and Northern Development Canal
Great Storm of 1913
International Boundary Waters Treaty
List of cities along the Great Lakes
Sixty Years' Warfor control of the Great Lakes
*Hyde, Charles K., and Ann and John Mahan. "The Northern Lights: Lighthouses of the Upper Great Lakes." Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1995. ISBN 0814325548 ISBN 9780814325544.
*Oleszewski, Wes, "Great Lakes Lighthouses, American and Canadian: A Comprehensive Directory/Guide to Great Lakes Lighthouses", (Gwinn, Michigan: Avery Color Studios, Inc., 1998) ISBN 0-932212-98-0.
*Penrod, John, "Lighthouses of Michigan", (Berrien Center, Michigan: Penrod/Hiawatha, 1998) ISBN 9780942618785 ISBN 9781893624238.
*Penrose, Laurie and Bill, A" Traveler’s Guide to 116 Michigan Lighthouses" (Petoskey, Michigan: Friede Publications, 1999). ISBN 0923756035 ISBN 9780923756031
*Wagner, John L., "Michigan Lighthouses: An Aerial Photographic Perspective", (East Lansing, Michigan: John L. Wagner, 1998) ISBN 1880311011 ISBN 9781880311011.
*Wright, Larry and Wright, Patricia, "Great Lakes Lighthouses Encyclopedia" Hardback (Erin: Boston Mills Press, 2006) ISBN 1550463993
* [http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/atlas/index.html EPA's Great Lakes Atlas]
* [http://www.seagrant.wisc.edu/greatlakesfish/textonly/LakeHuron.html Fish Species of Lake Huron]
* [http://www.coastwatch.msu.edu/ Great Lakes Coast Watch]
* [http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/huron.html Lake Huron Binational Partnership Action Plan]
* [http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/Maps/EastGL.shtml Lake Huron Data]
* [http://www.glfc.org/glgis/support_docs/html/lake_GISs/LHGIS_index.htm Lake Huron GIS]
* [http://www.michigan.gov/documents/lake-trout-refuge-lake_huron_151628_7.pdf Michigan DNR map of Lake Huron] ;Lighthouses
* [http://www.michiganlighthouse.org/bibliography.html Bibliography on Michigan lighthouses]
* [http://www.lighthousesrus.org/HuronGB.htm Interacitvew map of lighthouses, Georgian Bay, Lake Huron]
* [http://www.lighthousesrus.org/HuronNE.htm Interactive map of lighthouses in North and East Lake Huron]
* [http://www.lighthousesrus.org/HuronW.htm Interactive map of lighthouses in North and West Lake Huron]
* [http://www.terrypepper.com/Lights/index.htm Terry Pepper on lighthouses of the Western Great Lakes]
* [http://clarke.cmich.edu/lighthouses/index.htm Wagner, John L., Beacons Shining in the Night] , Michigan lighthouse bibliography, chronology, history, and photographs, Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.