- Lax Kw'alaams, British Columbia
Lax Kw'alaams, usually called Port Simpson, is an Indigenous village community in
British Columbia, Canada, not far from the city of Prince Rupert. It is the home of the "Nine Tribes" of the lower Skeena River, which are nine of the fourteen tribes of the Tsimshiannation. The Nine Tribes are: Giluts'aaw, Ginadoiks, Ginaxangiik, Gispaxlo'ots, Gitando, Gitlaan, Gits'iis, Gitwilgyoots, and Gitzaxłaał.
Lax Kw'alaams derives from "Laxłgu'alaams," which means "place of the wild roses." It is an ancient camping spot of the Gispaxlo'ots tribe and in 1834 became the site of a
Hudson's Bay Company(HBC) trading post called Fort Simpson, then Port Simpson. The name Fort Simpson derived from Capt. Aemilius Simpson, superintendent of the HBC's Marine Department, who had established the first, short lived, Fort Simpson, on the nearby Nass River, in 1830 with Peter Skene Ogden. The first HBC factor at the new Fort Simpson was Dr. John Frederick Kennedy, who married the daughter of the Gispaxlo'ots chief Ligeexas part of the diplomacy which established the fort on Gispaxlo'ots territory. Kennedy served at Fort Simpson until 1856.
In 1857 an Anglican lay missionary named William Duncan brought Christianity to Lax Kw'alaams, but, feeling that he was competing in vain with the dissipated fort atmosphere for Tsimshian souls, he relocated about 350 of his flock to Metlakatla, at Metlakatla Pass just to the south. There was no further missionary presence at Lax Kw'alaams until the arrival of the Rev.
Thomas Crosbyof the Methodist church in 1874. The community is still predominantly Methodist (i.e. United Church of Canada). Crosby's wife, Emma Crosby, founded the Crosby Girls' Home in the community in the 1880s. It became part of B.C.'s residential school system in 1893 and was closed in 1948.
It was in Port Simpson in 1931 that the
Native Brotherhood of British Columbiawas founded as the province's first Native-run rights organization. Its four founders included the Tsimshian ethnologist William Beynon.
Duncan estimated the population of Lax Kw'alaams in 1857 as 2,300, living in 140 houses. Approximately 500 died in a smallpox epidemic shortly after Duncan's departure. Today Lax Kw'alaams is the largest of the seven Tsimshian village communities in Canada. Its population in 1983 was 882.
The legal and political interests of the people of Lax Kw'alaams "vis à vis" the provincial and federal governments are represented by the Allied Tsimshian Tribes Association, which represents the hereditary chiefs of the Nine Tribes.
Prominent people of Lax Kw'alaams descent
Frederick Alexcee, artist
William Beynon, hereditary chief and ethnologist
Edward E. Bryant, artist and carver
Alfred Dudoward, hereditary chief
Charles Dudoward, artist
Valerie Dudoward, playwright
Bill Helin, artist
Rudy Kelly, journalist, humorist, and playwright
*Paul Legaic, hereditary chief and trader
Odille Morison, linguist and artifact collector
William Henry Pierce, missionary and memoirist
Terry Starr, artist
Henry W. Tate, oral historian
Arthur Wellington Clah, hereditary chief and diarist
*William White, weaver
* Bolt, Clarence (1992) "Thomas Crosby and the Tsimshian: Small Shoes for Feet Too Large." Vancouver: UBC Press.
* Garfield, Viola (1939) "Tsimshian Clan and Society." "University of Washington Publications in Anthropology," vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 167-340.
* Hare, Jan, and Jean Barman (2006) "Good Intentions Gone Awry: Emma Crosby and the Methodist Mission on the Northwest Coast." Afterword by Caroline Dudoward. Vancouver: UBC Press.
* Inglis, Gordon B., "et al." (1990) "Tsimshians of British Columbia since 1900." In "Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 7: Northwest Coast," pp. 285-293. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
* Large, R. Geddes (1957; reprinted, 1981) "The Skeena: River of Destiny." Sidney, B.C.: Gray's Publishing.
* Meilleur, Helen (2001) "A Pour of Rain: Stories from a West Coast Fort." Vancouver: Raincoast Books.
* Neylan, Susan (2001) "The Heavens Are Changing: Nineteenth-Century Protestant Missions and Tsimshian Christianity." Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
* [http://survivingcanada.resist.ca/image/tid/8 Photos]
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