An archivist is a professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to information determined to have long-term value. The information maintained by an archivist can be any form of media (
photographs, videoor sound recordings, letters, documents, electronic records, etc.). As Richard Pearce-Moses wrote, "Archivists keep records that have enduring value as reliable memories of the past, and they help people find and understand the information they need in those records." [Pearce-Moses, Richard. "Identity and Diversity: What Is an Archivist?" "Archival Outlook", March/April 2006.]
Determining what records have enduring value can be challenging. Archivists must also select records valuable enough to justify the costs of storage and preservation, plus the labor intensive expenses of arrangement, description, and reference service. [cite book | first=Gregory| last=Hunter |year=2003 |title=Developing and Maintaining Practical Archives| chapter= | editor= | others= | pages= | location=New York | publisher=Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. | id= | url=http://www.neal-schuman.com/db/3/353.html | authorlink= ] The theory and scholarly work underpinning
archivespractices is called archival science.
Duties and work environment
Archivists' duties include acquiring and appraising new collections, arranging and describing records, providing reference service, and preserving materials. In arranging records, archivists apply two important principles:
provenanceand original order, sometimes referred to as "respect des fonds". Provenance refers to the origin of records, essentially who created them. The idea of "respect des fonds" is applied by keeping records in their original order as established and maintained by the creator(s). This also means that records from one corporate body should not be mixed with records from another. Original order is not always the best way to maintain some collections though, and archivists must use their own experience and current best practices to determine the correct way to keep collections of mixed media or those lacking a clear original arrangement. [cite book | first=James M. and Richard J. Cox| last=O'Toole |year=2006 | title=Understanding Archives and Manuscripts | chapter= | editor= | others= | pages= | location=Chicago | publisher=Society of American Archivists | id= | url=http://www.archivists.org/catalog/pubDetail.asp?objectID=1997 | authorlink= ]
American archivists are also guided in their work by a code of ethics. [cite web |url=http://www.archivists.org/governance/handbook/app_ethics.asp |title=SAA Code of Ethics |accessdate=2007-03-30 |publisher= [http://www.archivists.org Society of American Archivists] ] Alongside their work behind the scenes arranging and caring for collections, archivists assist users in interpreting collections and answering inquiries. This reference work can be just part of an archivist's job in a smaller organization, or consist of most of their occupation in a larger archive where specific roles (such as processing archivist and reference archivist) may be delineated. [cite journal |last=O'Donnell |first=F. |coauthors= |year=2000 |month= |title=Reference Service in an Academic Archives |journal=The
Journal of Academic Librarianship|volume=vol. 26 |issue=no. 2 |pages=pp. 110–118|url=http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1408503 | accessdate=2007-04-20|doi=10.1016/S0099-1333(99)00147-0]
Archivists work for a variety of organizations, including government agencies,
local authorities, museums, hospitals, historical societies, businesses, charities, corporations, collegesand universities, and any institutionwhose records may potentially be valuable to researchers, exhibitors, genealogists, or others. Alternatively, they could also work on the collections of a large familyor even of an individual. Applicants for archives jobs usually outnumber positions available. [cite web |url=http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos065.htm#outlook|title=Archivists, Curators, and Museum Technicians |accessdate=2007-04-20 |publisher=U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics]
Archivists are often educators as well; it is not unusual for an archivist employed at a university or college to lecture in a subject related to their collection. Archivists employed at cultural institutions or for local government frequently design educational or
outreachprograms to further the ability of archive users to understand and access information in their collections. This might include such varied activities as exhibitions, promotional events or even media coverage. [cite web |url=http://www.archivists.org/governance/guidelines/cu_guidelines4.asp|title=Guidelines for College and University Archives, Section IV. Core Archival Functions, Subsection D. Service |accessdate=2007-04-23 |publisher= [http://www.archivists.org Society of American Archivists] ]
The advent of
Encoded Archival Description, along with increasing demand for materials to be made available online, has required archivists to become more tech-savvy in the past decade. Many archivists are now acquiring basic XML skills in order to make their finding aids available to researchers online. [cite web |url=http://www.archiveshub.ac.uk/arch/ead.shtml|title=Encoded Archival Description |accessdate=2007-04-23 |publisher= [http://www.archiveshub.ac.uk Archives Hub] ]
Because of the varied nature of the job and organisations and work environment, archivists need to have a wide range of
* Those who work in reference and access-oriented positions need to be good with
people, so that they are able to help them with their research.
* An ability to apply some basic knowledge of is needed to help extend the useful life of cultural artifacts. Many different types of media (such as photographs, acidic papers, and unstable copy processes) can deteriorate if not stored and maintained properly. [cite book | first=Mary Lynn | last=Ritzenthaler | year=1993 | title=Preserving Archives and Manuscripts | chapter= | editor= | others= | pages= | location=Chicago | publisher=Society of American Archivists | id= | url= | authorlink= ]
* Although many archival collections consist solely of paper records, increasingly archivists must confront the new challenges posed by the preservation of electronic records, so they need to be forward-looking and technologically proficient. [cite web |url=http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub89/archival.html|title=The Archival Paradigm—The Genesis and Rationales of Archival Principles and Practices|accessdate=2007-04-03 |publisher=Council on Library and Information Resources [http://www.clir.org/] ]
* Because of the amount of sorting and listing, they need to be very
logicaland organised and be able to pay attention to detail.
* When cataloging records, or when assisting users, archivists need to have some
* Archivists are occasionally called upon to comment or provide some context for the records in their collection and so should know as much about their collection as possible.
The educational preparation for archivists varies from country to country.
Colombia, the [http://www.lasalle.edu.co/pregrado/ppregrado_sist_inf_documentacion.htm Universidad de La Salle] offers the degree of Professional in Information Systems, Library and Archival Sciences. It is a vocational training program, within existing legal standards aimed at providing knowledge, skills and abilities required for the design and management of information systems and documentation of various sorts. Its projection for the future is based on the application of new information technologies and communications for the management of information services economically viable. The program was created in 1971.
Graduates of this program have founded the
Colombian College of Archivists - CCA, and the [http://www.sociedadcolombianadearchivistas.org Colombian Society of Archivists - SCA] ; comprising the Alumni Association of Librarian and Archival Science (Asociación de Egresados de Bibliotecología y Archivística de la Universidad de La Salle - ASEBIAR); are officials of the [http://www.archivogeneral.gov.co General Archives of the Nation] , the [http://188.8.131.52/archivo/index.html Archives of Bogota] and the most prestigious public and private companies.
Other institutions that offers a degree in Archival Science are:
* [http://www.cienciadelainformacion.edu.co Universidad del Quindío] - Professional degree: Professional in Information and Documentation, Library and Archival Sciences.
* [http://bibliotecologia.udea.edu.co Escuela Interamericana de Bibliotecología] - Technological degree: Technologist in Archival Science.
* [http://www.ucm.edu.co/final/archivistica.php Universidad Católica de Manizales] - Technological degree: Technologist in Documentation and Archival Science.
* [http://www.sena.edu.co Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje - SENA] in chain training with the [http://plataforma.unipamplona.edu.co/tda Tecnológico de Antioquia] - Technical degree: Professional Technical in Archives.
Some institutions, tech colleges and universities offers assignatures about Archival Science, but don't offers title of Archivist.
Republic of Ireland
In Ireland, the
University College Dublin School of History and Archivesoffers a Masters of Arts degree in Archival Studies, recognised by the Society of Archivists.
United Kingdom, there are currently five full- or part-time postgraduate courses in archives administration or management which are recognised by the Society of Archivists. Students are expected to have relevant paid or voluntary work experiencebefore obtaining a place on the UK courses; many undertake a year's traineeship. Also, professional certification (after qualifying) can be pursued via the Registration Scheme offered by the Society of Archivists.
According to the most recent professional census of American Archivists published, most of those in the United States have earned a
Masters degree. [cite web |url=http://www.archivists.org/a-census/|title=Archival Census and Education Needs: Survey in the United States |accessdate=2007-04-04 |publisher= [http://www.archivists.org Society of American Archivists] ] However, the exact type of degree can vary; the most common sorts of advanced degrees held by archivists are in archival science, history, library science, or library and information science. It is also possible for archivists to earn a doctoratein library, or library and information, science. Archivists with a Ph. D. often work as teaching faculty or deans and directors of archival programs. [cite journal |last=Yakel and Bastian |first=Elizabeth and Jeannette |coauthors= |year=2007 |month=Fall/Winter |title=A*Census: Report on Archival Graduate Education |journal=American Archivist |volume=69 |issue=2 |pages=349–366 |url=http://www.archivists.org/a-census/reports/YakelBastian-ACENSUS.pdf| accessdate=2007-04-04] In 2002, the Society of American Archivistspublished Guidelines for a Graduate Program in Archival Studies. [cite web |url=http://www.archivists.org/prof-education/ed_guidelines.asp#_ftn1 |title=Guidelines for a Graduate Program in Archival Studies |accessdate=2007-03-30 |publisher= [http://www.archivists.org Society of American Archivists] ]
Also in the United States, the
Academy of Certified Archivistsoffers supplemental archival training by means of a certification program. Critics of ACA certification object to its yearly membership fees, the theoretical versus practical nature of its tests, and the need for members to re-certify every five years. Many positions in government archives require certification from the ACA, but due to its controversial nature, the ACA is not required by all employers in the United States.
Professional organizations and continuing education
Many archivists belong to a professional organization, such as the
Society of American Archivists, the Association of Canadian Archivists, the Society of Archivists(UK/Ireland), the Colombian College of Archivists - CCAand the Australian Society of Archivists, as well as any number of local or regional associations. These organizations often provide ongoing educational opportunities to their members and other interested practitioners. In addition to formal degrees and or apprenticeships, many archivists take part in continuing education opportunities as available through professional associations and library school programs. New discoveries in the fields of media preservationand emerging technologies require continuing education as part of an archivist's job in order to stay current in the profession. [cite journal |last=Zimmelman |first=Nancy |coauthors= |year=2007 |month=Fall/Winter |title=A*Census: Report on Continuing Education |journal=American Archivist |volume=69 |issue=2 |pages=367–395 |url=http://www.archivists.org/a-census/reports/Zimmelman-ACENSUS.pdf| accessdate=2007-04-04]
History of the profession
In 1898 three Dutch archivists, Samuel Muller, Johan Feith, and Robert Fruin, published the first Western text on archival theory entitled "Manual for the Arrangement and Description of Archives". Produced for the Dutch Association of Archivists, it set out one hundred rules for archivists to base their work around. Notably within these rules the principle of preserving
provenanceand original order was first argued for as an essential trait of archival arrangement and description. [cite book | first=Terry | last=Cook |year=1997 | title=What is Past is Prologue: A History of Archival Ideas Since 1898, and the Future Paradigm Shift | chapter= | editor= | others= | pages= | location=Canada | publisher=Archivaria Vol.43, Association of Canadian Archivists | id= | url=http://www.mybestdocs.com/cookt-pastprologue-ar43fnl.htm | authorlink= ]
The next major text was written in 1922 by
Sir Hilary Jenkinson, the then Deputy Keeper of the British Public Records Office, entitled "Manual of Archive Administration". In this work Jenkinson states that archives are evidence and that the moral and physical defence of this evidential value is the central tenet of archival work. He further outlines his ideas of what an Archive should be and how it should operate.
T. R. Schellenberg, who is known as the "Father of American Archival Appraisal", [ [http://archivopedia.com/wiki/index.php?title=Theodore_R._Schellenberg Schellenberg, T. R. (Theodore R.), 1903-1970 - Archivopedia ] ] published "Modern Archives". Schellenberg's work was intended to be an academic textbook defining archival methodology and giving archivists specific technical instruction on workflow and arrangement. Moving away from Jenkinson's organic and passive approach to archival acquisition, where the administrator decided what was kept and what was destroyed, Schellenberg argued for a more active approach by archivists to appraisal. His primary (administrative) and secondary (research) value model for the management and appraisal of records and archives allowed government archivists greater control over the influx of material that they faced after the Second World War. As a result of the widespread adoption of Schellenberg's methods, especially in the United States of America, modern Records Managementas a separate but related discipline was born. [cite book | first=Theodore R. | last=Schellenberg | year=1956 | title=Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques | chapter= | editor= | others= | pages= | location=Chicago | publisher=University of Chicago Press | id= | url= | authorlink= ]
Ernst Posnerpublished "Archives in the Ancient World". Posner's work emphasized that archives were not new inventions, but had existed in many different societies throughout recorded history.
In 1975, essays by Margaret Cross Norton were collected under the title of "Norton on Archives: The Writings of Margaret Cross Norton on Archival and Records Management". Norton was one of the founders of the
Society of American Archivists, and wrote essays based on her decades of experience working in the IllinoisState Archives.
Archivists, like librarians, are taking advantage of
Web 2.0technologies such as blogs, [ [http://archivopedia.com/_mgxroot/page_10755.html Archivopedia list of blogs by archivists] ] wikis [ [http://archivopedia.com/ Archivopedia wiki search] ] , and virtual environments [ [http://archivopedia.com/_mgxroot/page_10754.html Virtual Campus ] ] as well as open access and open source philosophies.
* [http://www.aranz.org.nz/ Archives and Records Association of New Zealand]
* [http://archivists.ca/ Association of Canadian Archivists]
* [http://www.archivists.org.au/ Australian Society of Archivists]
* [http://www.cesarch.cz/foreign.aspx?lang=en Česká archivní společnost / Czech Archive Society (In English)]
* [http://www.ccarchivistas.org Colegio Colombiano de Archivistas - CCA (Colombian College of Archivists - CCA)]
* [http://sophia.smith.edu/%7Epnelson/regionals/ Directory of Regional, State and Local Archival Organizations in the United States]
* [http://www.ica.org/ International Council on Archives]
* [http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ Occupational Outlook Handbook]
* [http://archivists.org/ Society of American Archivists]
* [http://www.archives.org.uk/ Society of Archivists (UK and Ireland)]
* [http://www.archives.org.za/ South African Society of Archivists]
* [http://www.archiviststoolkit.org/ The Archivist's Toolkit] A free, open-source collection management program created by archivists for archivists
* [http://archivopedia.com/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page Archivopedia] - a wiki encyclopedia for archivists
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