A halberd (also called halbert or Swiss voulge) is a two-handed
pole weaponthat came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries. Possibly the word "halberd" comes from the German words "Halm" (staff), and "Barte" (axe). The halberd consists of an axeblade topped with a spike mounted on a long shaft. It always has a hook or thorn on the back side of the axe blade for grappling mounted combatants. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-57610/military-technology military technology - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] It is very similar to certain forms of the voulgein design and usage. The halberd was 1.5 to 1.8 meters (4 to 6 feet) long. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038851/halberd halberd - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ]
The halberd was cheap to produce and very versatile in battle. As the halberd was eventually refined, its point was more fully developed to allow it to better deal with
spears and pikes (also able to push back approaching horsemen), as was the hook opposite the axe head, which could be used to pull horsemen to the ground. [http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=gle History of WARFARE - LAND ] ]
Additionally, halberds were reinforced with metal rims over the shaft, thus making effective weapons for blocking other weapons like swords. This capability increased its effectiveness in battle, and expert halberdiers were as deadly as any other weapon masters were. It is said that a halberd in the hands of a Swiss peasant was the weapon that killed the Duke of Burgundy,
Charles the Bold, decisively ending the Burgundian Wars, literally in a single stroke.
The halberd was the primary weapon of the early
Swissarmies in the 14th and early 15th centuries. Later on, the Swiss added the pike to better repel knightly attacks and roll over enemy infantry formations, with the halberd, hand-and-a-half sword, or the daggerknown as the "Schweizerdolch" being used for closer combat. The German " Landsknechte", who imitated Swiss warfare methods, also used the halberd, supplemented by the pike, but their side armof choice was the short swordknown as the " Katzbalger".
As long as pikemen fought other pikemen, the halberd remained a useful supplemental weapon for "
push of pike," but when their position became more defensive, to protect the slow-loading arquebusiers and matchlockmusketeers from sudden attacks by cavalry, the percentage of halberdiers in the pike units steadily decreased, until the halberd all but disappeared from these formations as a rank-and-file weapon by the middle of the sixteenth century. [http://members.aol.com/dargolyt/TheForge/halberb.htm Halberd ] ]
The halberd has been used as a court bodyguard weapon for centuries, and is still the ceremonial weapon of the
Swiss Guardin the Vatican. [ [http://www.slate.com/id/2167830/nav/tap3/%3Cbr%20/%3E What does the Swiss Guard actually do? - By Christopher Beam - Slate Magazine ] ] The halberd was one of the polearms sometimes carried by lower-ranking officers in European infantry units in the 16th through 18th centuries.
Different types of halberds
Weapons often mistaken for halberds
Lochaber axe(Jeddart axe)
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