- Stereotypes of East and Southeast Asians in the United States
Stereotypes of East and Southeast Asians are
ethnic stereotypes that are found in many Western societies. Stereotypes of Asian people, specifically East Asians and Southeast Asians, like other stereotypes, are often manifest in a society's media, literature, theaterand other creative expressions. In many instances, media portrayals of Asians often reflect the dominant Eurocentricideas of them rather than their actual customs and behaviors.Citation |last=Kashiwabara |first=Amy |url=http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/Amydoc.html |title=Vanishing Son: The Appearance, Disappearance, and Assimilation of the Asian-American Man in American Mainstream Media |publisher=UC Berkeley Media Resources Center] However, these stereotypes have repercussions for Asians and Asian immigrants in daily interactions, current events, and governmental legislation. Asians have experienced discriminationand have been victims of hate crimesrelated to their ethnic stereotypes.
Orientalism, mysticism and exoticism
Edward Said, " orientalism" refers to the way that the West interprets or comes to terms with their experiences and encounters with the Orient, or the East. Said claimed that "the Orient" was a European invention to denote Asia as a place of exoticism, romance, and remarkable experiences, and also as a conception to contrast with Western civilization.Said, Edward. "Orientalism." New York: Vintage, 1978, p. 1-2.]
The effects of orientalism in
Western cultures include an "othering" of Asians and Asian Americans; their cultures and ways of life are seen as being "exotic" and novel, in direct contrast to "normal" Western customs. While Western cultures are capable of changing and modernizing, Asian cultures are seen as being ancient,cite journal
title=Japan as Other: Orientalism and Cultural Conflict
url=http://www.immi.se/intercultural/nr4/rosen.htm] static, and entrenched in the past. Western cultures stereotype Asian cultures as being very
superstitious, spiritual and mystical, and full of ancient wisdom. This is manifested by countless fabricated supposed ancient Chinese sayings by Confuciusand other ancient wise Asian men found in numerous American novels, movies, and websites, and by the widespread popularity of fortune cookiesin North American Chinese restaurants catered to Western customers that supposedly predict the future or dispense sage-sounding advice. Other examples of Asian culture as novelty in Western cultures include the Chinoiseriefad during the 18th century, the trendiness of Asian motifs, and the popular choice of Chinese characters as tattoo designs despite unfamiliarity with the language. Historically, America's Chinatowns have held a place in the American imagination as a mysterious sketchy place of opium dens, gangs, and foreign speech.
In the musical comedy "
Thoroughly Modern Millie", Mrs. Meers, a White woman pretending to be Asian claims that soy sauceis capable of magically removing stains, one of the "mysteries of the Orient." The lyricist of the musical " Miss Saigon" deliberately makes the Vietnamese prostitute's lines "mystical and obscure,"Behr, Edward, and Mark Steyn. "The Story of Miss Saigon." New York: Arcade Publishing, 1991, p.36] giving her nonsensical lyrics steeped in mysticism like "paper dragons in the sky" and "You are sunlight and I moon/joined by the gods of fortune."Schonberg, Claude-Michel, Alain Boublil, and Richard Maltby Jr. "Miss Saigon." (Original 1989 London Cast).]
tereotypes of exclusion
The term "Yellow Peril" refers to an American fear, peaking in the late 19th century, that a large number of Asians would immigrate to the United States and fill the country with a foreign culture and speech incomprehensible to those already here, and take jobs away from Americans. During this time, numerous anti-Asian sentiments were expressed by politicians and writers, especially on the West Coast, with headlines like "The 'Yellow Peril'" ("Los Angeles Times", 1886) and "Conference Endorses Chinese Exclusion" ("The New York Times", 1905) and the later Japanese Exclusion Act. The
Immigration Act of 1924limited the number of Asians because they were considered an "undesirable" race. [Citation|title=History World: Asian Americans |url=http://history-world.org/asian_americans.htm] Australiahad similar fears and introduced a White Australia policy, restricting immigration between 1901 to 1973, with some elements of the policies persisting to the 1980s. Similarly, Canadahad in place a head tax on Asian immigrants to Canada in the early 20th century; a formal government apology was given in 2007 (with compensation to the surviving head tax payers and their descendants).
Throughout America's history,
Asian Americanshave been conceived, treated, and portrayed as perpetual foreigners; unassimilable and inherently foreign regardless of citizenshipor duration of residence in America. [Neil Gotanda, "Exclusion and Inclusion: Immigration and American orientalism"] This is evident through government actions such as Takao Ozawa v. United Statesand the Chinese Exclusion Act (United States), and statements made in the nation's literature and periodicals. A statement made by Justice Harlan in the 1897 court case of United States v. Wong Kim Arkexplicitly illustrates this stereotype of Asians in saying that Asians are "strangers in the land" who are "incapable of assimilating". ["United States v. Wong Kim Ark" (169 U.S. 649 1898: 731)]
Racial triangulation theory
According to political science professor/author/scholar Claire Jean Kim, Asian Americans have been racially triangulated in
American societyin relation to America's preexisting deeply-rooted black-white bipolar racial dichotomy. This theory is the intersection of the model minoritystereotype and the Perpetual Foreigner stereotype. In America's preexisting system of racial valorization, whites have been considered the dominant "superior" group, while blacks have been considered a subordinate "inferior" group, often stereotyped as being lazy, cultureless, and primitive throughout American history. Within this spectrum of racial valorization, the dominant group has labeled Asian Americans as being "superior" to blacks, and are stereotyped as being a hard-working intelligent people (a "model" minority) having an ancient venerable culture, but still "inferior" to whites. However this contrasts with the other dimension of this theory, both whites and blacks, regardless of valorization, are considered to be "insiders" to American culture; thoroughly assimilated and native to America. Asian Americans, on the other hand, despite their "superior" valorization by the dominant group in relation to other minorities, are still considered to be unassimilable perpetual "foreigners," inherently fixed in their own exotic Asian cultures and unable to adapt to American ways. [Claire Jean Kim, "The Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans," "Politics & Society", Vol 27. No. 1, March 1999, 105-138.]
Model minority stereotype
Asian Americans have also been stereotyped as a "model minority"; that is, positive traits are applied as a stereotype. Asians are seen as hardworking, politically inactive, studious, intelligent, productive, and inoffensive people who have elevated their social standing through merit and diligence. This label is given in contrast to other stereotypes which often accuse minorities of socially unwelcome traits, such as laziness or criminal tendencies.
However, Asian Americans believe the model minority stereotype to be damaging and inaccurate, and are fighting to dispel this stereotype. [ [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/290/5494/1072 ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Silent No Longer: 'Model Minority' Mobilizes - Lawler 290 (5494): 1072 - Science ] ] Scholars, activists, and most major American news sources have started to oppose this stereotype, calling it a misconception that exaggerates the success of Asian Americans. [Bill Sing, "'Model Minority' Resentments Spawn Anti-Asian-American Insults and Violence," "Los Angeles Times" 31 February 1989, p. 12.] [Greg Toppo, "'Model' Asian student called a myth ; Middle-class status may be a better gauge of classroom success," "USA Today," 10 December 2002, p. 11.] [Benjamin Pimentel, "Model minority image is a hurdle, Asian Americans feel left out of mainstream," "San Francisco Chronicle," 5 August 2001, p.25.] ["What 'Model Minority' Doesn't Tell," "Chicago Tribune", 3 January 1998, p.18.] According to those trying to debunk this belief, the model minority stereotype alienates Asian Americans from other minorities and covers up actual Asian American issues and needs that are still not properly addressed in America today. [www.modelminority.com] For example, the widespread notion that Asian Americans earn higher-than-average income obscures issues such as the "
glass ceiling" phenomenon, where advancement into the highest-level managerial or executive positions is blocked, [Woo, Deborah, "The Glass Ceiling and Asian Americans," "Key Workplace Documents:Federal Publications", (1994) [http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1130&context=key_workplace] ] ["The Glass Ceiling for African, Hispanic (Latino), and Asian Americans," "Ethnic Majority", [http://www.ethnicmajority.com/glass_ceiling.htm] ] [Constable, Pamela, "A 'Glass Ceiling' of Misperceptions," "WashingtonPost", 10 October 1995, Page A01 [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/affirm/stories/aa101095.htm] ] and the fact that Asian Americans must acquire more education and work more hours than their white counterparts to earn the same amount of money.Ronald Takaki, "The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority," "The New York Times", 16 June 1990, p. 21.] The "model minority" image is also seen as being damaging to Asian American students because their assumed success makes it easy for educators to overlook Asian American students who are struggling academically. [Felicia R. Lee, "'Model Minority' Label Taxes Asian Youths," "New York Times", 20 March 1990, pages B1 & B4.]
The model minority stereotypes also hurts statistically underperforming Asian groups, such as the
Pacific Islanderand Southeast Asian youths whose dilemma is masked by the more publicized successes of the larger middle-classEast Asian population of youth descended from the wave of professionals who emigrated to America during the 1960sFact|date=November 2007. For example, 25.2% of Asian Americans over age 25 hold a bachelor's degreecompared to only 15.5% of the general American population, thus giving the impression of Asian American success. However, only 6.9% of Cambodians, and 6.2% of Laotiansin this age group in America hold bachelor's degrees.Citation |last=Kim |first=Angela |last2=Yeh |first2=Christine J |title=Stereotypes of Asian American Students |publisher=ERIC Educational Reports | url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pric/is_200202/ai_3554787965] Citation |last=Yang |first=KaYing |title=Southeast Asian American Children: Not the Model Minority |journal=The Future of Children |volume=14 No. 2 |year=2004 |pages=127-133] Despite this stereotype of supposed Asian American success, there is a high 80% unemployment rate among the Hmong Americansand other Asian Americans groups from refugee backgrounds. Ronald Takaki, "The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority," "The New York Times", 16 June 1990, p. 21.]
Furthermore, the model minority concept can even be emotionally damaging to Asian Americans, particularly since they are expected to live up to their peers who are part of the model minority. Studies have shown that Asian Americans suffer from higher rates of stress, depression, mental illnesses, and suicide attempts in comparison to other groups. [ [http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Mental_Health_and_Depression_in_Asian_Americans.pdf "Mental Health and Depression in Asian Americans"] ] The pressures to achieve and live up to the model minority image have taken a mental and psychological toll on Asian Americans. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2007/HEALTH/05/16/asian.suicides/ "Push to achieve tied to suicide in Asian American women"] ]
The image of Asian Americans as the model minority also took a hit with a string of incidents involving Asian Americans engaging in criminal or unethical behavior. [ "Our big cultural heritage, our awful little secrets" [http://www.asianreporter.com/stories/polo/2007/p-18-07.htm] ] [ "Some Korean Americans fearful of racial backlash" [http://www.nola.com/education/t-p/index.ssf?/base/news-3/1176879681205230.xml&coll=1&thispage=1] ] In 2007, Asian Americans were implicated in cheating scandals, shooting sprees, and political corruption. Most notable is the
Virginia Tech massacreby Korean Seung-Hui Cho, which led to the deaths of 33 individuals, including Cho himself. The shooting spree, along with Cho's Korean ethnicity, stunned the Asian American community. [ "Sadly, Cho is Most Newsworthy APA of 2007" [http://asianweek.com/2008/01/01/sadly-cho-is-most-newsworthy-apa-in-2007/] ] Other scandals which made headlines were the arrests of Norman Hsu, a former campaign donor to Hillary Clinton, Ed Jew, the former San Francisco Supervisor, and Kyung Joon Kim, a former Los Angeles City Commissioner who served as a business partner to current South Korean president Lee Myung-bak. Also in 2007, 34 MBAstudents, primarily of East Asiandescent, were caught in a major cheating scandal at Fuqua School of Businessof Duke University. Of those 34 students, 9 were permanently expelled, 15 were suspended for one year, and the rest received failing grades. [ "Duke Cheating Case Hits Asian Students" [http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory?id=3200404] ]
Archetypal Asians in American fiction
Fu Manchuand Charlie Chanare two important and well-known fictional Asian characters in America's cultural history. Both were created by white authors, Sax Rohmerand Earl Derr Biggersrespectively, in the early part of the 20th century. Fu Manchu is a sardonic, intelligent, yet evil Chinese murderer with plots of world domination, an embodiment of America's imagination of a threatening mysterious Asian people. Charlie Chan is an apologetic submissive Chinese- Hawaiiandetective who solves cases while politely handling the many racist insults hurled at him by white American characters, and represents America's archetypal "good" Asian. Both characters found widespread popularity in numerous novelsand films, and therefore have pervaded the American consciousness with stereotypes of Asians.William F. Wu, "The Yellow Peril: Chinese Americans in American Fiction, 1850-1940", Archon Press, 1982.]
Fu Manchu: "evil" Asian
Thirteen novels, three short stories, and one novelette have been written about Fu Manchu and Sir Denis Nayland Smith, the British agent determined to stop him. Millions of copies have been sold in the United States with publication in British and American periodicals and adaptations to film, comics, radio, and television. Due to his enormous popularity, the "image of Fu Manchu has been absorbed into American consciousness as the archetypal Asian villain." In "The Insidious Doctor Fu-Manchu", Sax Rohmer introduces Fu Manchu as a cruel and cunning man, with a face like
Satan, who is essentially the " Yellow Perilincarnate".Sax Rohmer, "The Insidious Doctor Fu-Manchu" (1913; reprint ed., New York: Pyramid, 1961), p. 17.]
Sax Rohmer inextricably tied the evil character of Fu Manchu to the entire Asian race as a manifestation of the yellow peril, attributing the villain's behavior to his race. Rohmer also adds an element of mysticism and exoticism to his portrayal of Fu Manchu. As Fu Manchu contrives elaborately creative and cruel methods of murdering his victims, he often uses supposedly Asian methods or elements in his murders such as silk rope. It is also important to note here that despite Fu Manchu's specifically Chinese ethnicity, these elements are pan-Asian, again reinforcing his portrayal as a representation of "all" Asian people. Blatantly racist statements made by white protagonists such as: "the swamping of the white world by yellow hordes might well be the price of our failure" again add to Asian stereotypes of exclusion.Rohmer, Sax, "The Hand of Fu-Manchu" (1917; reprint ed., New York: Pyramid, 1962), p.111.] Fu Manchu's inventively sardonic methods of murder and white protagonist Denis Nayland Smith's grudging respect for his intellect reinforce stereotypes of Asian intelligence, exoticism/mysticism, and extreme cruelty.
Charlie Chan: "good" Asian
Charlie Chan, a fictional character created by author
Earl Derr Biggersloosely based on Chang Apana(1871-1933), a real-life Chinese-Hawaiian police officer, has been the subject of 10 novels (spanning from 1925 to as late as 1981), over 40 American films, a comic strip, a board game, a card game, and a 1970s animated television series. In the films, the role of Charlie Chan has almost always been played by white actors (namely Warner Oland, Sidney Toler, and Roland Winters) in "yellowface."Citation
title=Internet Movie Database - list of Charlie Chan movies
In stark contrast to the Chinese villain Fu Manchu, Asian American protagonist Charlie Chan represents the American archetype of the "good" Asian. In "The House Without a Key", Earl Derr Biggers describes Charlie Chan in the following manner: "He was very fat indeed, yet he walked with the light dainty step of a woman. His cheeks were chubby as a baby's, his skin ivory tinted, his black hair close-cropped, his amber eyes slanting."Earl Derr Biggers, "The House Without a Key" (New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1925), p.76.] Charlie Chan speaks English with a heavy accent and flawed grammar, and is meticulously polite and apologetic. After one particular racist affront by a Bostonian woman, Chan responds with exaggerated submission, "Humbly asking pardon to mention it, I detect in your eyes slight flame of hostility. Quench it, if you will be so kind. Friendly co-operation are essential between us." Bowing deeply, he added, "Wishing you good morning."
Because of his emasculated, unassertive, and apologetic physical appearance and demeanor, Charlie Chan comes off as non-threatening to mainstream audiences despite his considerable intellect and ability as an Asian American man. He holds none of the daring, assertive, or romantic traits generally attributed to white fictional detectives of the time. Instead, Charlie Chan's successes as a detective are in the context of proving himself to his white superiors or white racists who underestimate him early on in the various plots. His character also perpetuates stereotypes of orientalism as well, as he quotes supposed ancient Chinese wisdom at the end of each novel, saying things like: "The Emperor Shi Hwang-ti, who built the
Great Wall of China, once said: 'He who squanders to-day talking of yesterday's triumph, will have nothing to boast of tomorrow.'"Biggers, Earl Derr, "Charlie Chan Carries On" (1930; reprint ed., New York: Bantam, 1975), p.233.]
tereotypes of Asian men
Emasculation and effeminacy
Historically, Americans have thought of Asian men as feminine and emasculated since the mass immigration of Chinese men to the United States to build the
transcontinental railroadduring the mid-1800s. The primary reasons for their emasculated image included the physical appearances of these laborers, and the fact that they did what was considered to be "women's work." These workers were as a group shorter than the average American man, sported long queues, and sometimes wore long silk gowns.Sheridan Prasso, "The Asian Mystique: dragon ladies, geisha girls, & our fantasies of the exotic orient", PublicAffairs, 2005.] Because Chinese men were seen as an economic threat to the white workforce and laws were passed that barred the Chinese from many industries, the only jobs available to the Chinese of the time were jobs that whites deemed "women's work" (i.e., laundry, cooking, and childcare). In the press, Asian men were constantly compared to white women.
Joan Kee observes that "Asian American male sexuality has long entailed a discourse of nothingness."Kee, Joan, "(Re)sexualizing the Desexualized Asian Malein the Works of Ken Chu and Michael Joo," "Harvard University". [http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/jouvert/v2i1/Kee.htm] ] Instead, according to
Sheridan Prasso, Asian men in film have with little exception been portrayed as "small, sneaky, and threatening... spineless, emasculated wimps", or "incompetents" who always lose when "faced with white man's superior strength or firepower."Sheridan Prasso, "The Asian Mystique: dragon ladies, geisha girls, & our fantasies of the exotic orient", PublicAffairs, 2005.]
The recurring image of the Asian male as a "sexually impotent voyeur or pervert" has pervaded television and film throughout American history. Examples include
Mickey Rooneyin "yellowface" as the bucktoothed Japanese landlord who sneaks peeps at Audrey Hepburnin the 1961 film " Breakfast at Tiffany's", or the nerd Long Duk Dong from John Hughes's 1984 adolescent classic " Sixteen Candles" whose every entrance is accompanied by the clash of a gong.
Even action movies like "
Kiss of the Dragon" (2001), or " The Replacement Killers" (1998) which contain Asian male protagonists deny the Asian male characters romances with the white women whose lives that they save. Instead of the kiss usually granted to the white male protagonist, the rescued white woman only gives the Asian action hero a hug or a grateful obligatory "thank you" kiss; there is almost never a relationship between the characters even if there is romantic tension.
Predators of white women
Asian men have been portrayed as threats to white womenEspiritu, Y. E. (1997). Ideological Racism and Cultural Resistance: Constructing Our Own Images, "Asian American Women and Men", Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.] in many aspects of American media. Depictions of Asian men as "lascivious and predatory" were common at the turn of the 20th century.Frankenberg, R. (1993). "White women, race matters: The social construction of whiteness.",
University of MinnesotaPress.] Between 1850 and 1940, both U.S. popular media and pre-war and WWII propagandaportrayed Asian men as a military and security threat to the country, and therefore a sexual danger to white womenWilliam F. Wu, "The Yellow Peril: Chinese Americans in American Fiction, 1850-1940", Archon Press, 1982.] since a woman's body traditionally symbolizes her "tribe's" house or country in Western cultures.Rich, Adrienne. 1994. Blood, Bread and Poetry: Selected Prose 1979–1985. New York: Norton 1986: p. 212. ] In the 1916 film " Petria", a group of fanatical Japanese individuals who invade the United States attempt to rape a white woman.Quinsaat, J. (1976). Asians in the media, The shadows in the spotlight. "Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian America" (pp 264-269). University of California at Los Angeles, Asian American Studies Center.]
Another stereotype of Asian men is that they are
misogynistic, insensitive and disrespectful towards women. They are commonly referred as male chauvinists. Citation |title=Teaching Asian American Literature |last=Ling |first=Amy |url=http://www.georgetown.edu/tamlit/essays/asian_am.html] Citation |title=Big American Misconceptions about Asians |publisher=GoldSea
url=http://www.goldsea.com/Features2/Essays/get.html] Citation |title=Peeling Prawns: Singapore Media and the Recovery of the Asian Feminine |last=Hudson |first=Chris |url=http://coombs.anu.edu.au/SpecialProj/ASAA/biennial-conference/2006/Hudson-Chris-ASAA2006.pdf] This stereotype originated from Asian media that portray Asian men as sexist.
The Joy Luck Club" is particularly consistent with this racial cliché because it portrays Chinese culture (especially Chinese males) as being negative and restrictive to the freedoms of Chinese females. Many Asian Americans (particularly Chinese Americans) were offended by the negative portrayal of Asian men in this film. Such screen portrayals are consistent with the restriction and/or absence of Asian American masculinity in the western media.
tereotypes of Asian women
Asian women have been portrayed as aggressive sexual beings.
Western filmand literature has promoted stereotypes of Asian women, such as depicting Asian women as cunning "Dragon Ladies", ["The Thief of Bagdad" (1924)] [" Daughter of Fu Manchu" (1931)] [Tong, B. (1994). "Unsubmissive women: Chinese prostitutes in nineteenth-century San Francisco", University of OklahomaPress.] as servile "Lotus Blossom Babies", "China dolls", "Geisha girls", war brides, or prostitutes. [Tajima, R. (1989). Lotus blossoms don't bleed: Images of Asian women., Asian Women United of California's "Making waves: An anthology of writings by and about Asian American women", (pp 308-317), Beacon Press.] Japanese mediahave also at times sensationally promoted the stereotype of Japanese women overseas as "yellow cabs". [cite book|last=Ma|first=Karen|title=The Modern Madame Butterfly: Fantasy and Reality in Japanese Cross-Cultural Relationships|date=1996|publisher=Tuttle Publishing|id=ISBN 0804820414] UC BerkeleyProfessor of Asian American Studies Elaine Kim has argued that the stereotype of Asian women as submissivesex objects has impeded women's economic mobility and has fostered increased demand in mail-order brides and ethnic pornography. [cite journal | first= Elaine |last=Kim | date=1984|title=Asian American writers: A bibliographical review|journal=American Studies International|volume=22|issue=2|pages=41–78.] . Staci Ford of the University of Hong Kongconcluded that stereotypical depictions of women in general created by sexist white men continue to haunt movies even though they now have a disguised form. [cite news | first=Staci | last=Ford | url=http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/35/3500494.pdf |title=Portrayal of Genders and Generation, East and West: Suzie Wong in the Noble House | date= | accessdate=2006-06-25]
The "china doll" stereotype
According to author
Sheridan Prasso, the China doll stereotype and other variations of this submissive stereotype exist in American movies: "Geisha Girl/Lotus Flower/Servant/China Doll: Submissive, docile, obedient, reverential (including Asian men as effeminate, servile); Vixen/Sex Nymph: Sexy, coquettish, manipulative; tendency toward disloyalty or opportunism; Prostitute/Victim of Sex Trade/War/Oppression: Helpless, in need of assistance or rescue; good-natured at heart." Gwen Stefani's adoption of this component of Japanese culturedrew criticism from Mihi Ahn at Salon.com, and others who feel that Stefani has stripped Japanese street fashion of its authenticity and created yet another example of the 'submissive Asian female' stereotype. [MiHi Ahn. [http://www.salon.com/ent/feature/2005/04/09/geisha/index_np.html Gwenihana Gwen Stefani neuters Japanese street fashion...] Salon.com. 9 April 2005. Retrieved 16 March 2006.] Stand-up comic Margaret Chohas labeled the Harajuku Girlsas a " minstrel show" that reinforces ethnic stereotypesof Asian women [ "Blender" Jan/Feb 2006 ] .
tereotypes of physical attributes
Ethnicity-specific stereotypes of physical appearance exist as well. For example, during
World War IIin America, efforts were made to distinguish "enemy" Japanese from "friendly" Chinese solely by physical appearance (as seen in wartime Life Magazinearticle [http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/a_f/foster/lifemag.htm] ), thus leading to further stereotyping and the attribution of physical traits to each group. ["How to tell Japs from the Chinese," Life Magazine, Dec. 1941] Asians are also stereotyped to be capable martial artists. [http://www.asian-nation.org/martial-arts.shtml]
Exclusion from leadership positions, lack of leadership ability
Some think that American businesses will fail when Asians own them because they are stereotyped to lack some skills such as
creativity, abstraction, analytical thinking, divergent thinking, lateral thinking, critical thinkingand thinking outside the boxto keep businesses running.Citation |title=indian_school_k |url=http://www.amren.com/mtnews/archives/2006/11/indian_school_k.php |publisher=American Renaissance ] Citation |title=Shelby Steele Takes On Racism, Imperialism, Affirmative Action|url=http://www.amren.com/mtnews/archives/2006/09/shelby_steele_t.php |publisher=American Renaissance ] Citation |title=UC System’s Admissions Milestone for Asian Americans|url=http://www.amren.com/mtnews/archives/2006/04/uc_systems_admi.php |publisher=American Renaissance ] Also there are stereotypes of Asians lacking leadership, verbaland managementskills.
A survey showed attitudes of white views of Asian CEOs: [Citation|title=American Attitudes towards Chinese Americans and Asian Americans|url=http://www.adl.org/misc/american_attitudes_towards_chinese.asp] 7% of Americans would not want to work for an Asian American CEO. This is in contrast to 4% for an African American, 3% for a woman and 4% for a Jew.
23% of Americans are uncomfortable voting for an Asian American to be President of the United States. This is in contrast to 38% with a Muslim candidate, 15% compared with an African American candidate, 14% compared with a woman candidate and 11% compared with a Jewish candidate. [Citation|title=Faith in the System|publisher=MotherJones|url=http://www.motherjones.com/news/exhibit/2004/09/09_200.html]
Poor English skills
In many American movies, television shows, and theatre productions, Asian characters have been represented as speaking English poorly, with amateur mistakes or caricaturish accents. Examples include the accent of the Chinese exchange student in "
Sixteen Candles", "Long Duk Dong". In the movie "Breakfast at Tiffany's", Mickey Rooneyin " yellowface" plays the bucktoothed Japanese neighbor who constantly yells at the protagonistsin broken English for being too noisy.
Fresh off the boat
*Stereotypes of Eurasians
Chinese Exclusion Act
American Born Chinese, a graphic novelby Gene Luen Yang that satirizes stereotypes of Chinese-Americans
* [http://www.modelminority.com Model Minority] A forum for articles and discussion concerning Asians in aspects of culture.
* [http://www.asian-nation.org/racism.shtml Asian-Nation] Anti-Asian Prejudice & Racism
* [http://www.tabunka.org/newsletter/black_racism.html Black Racism] Article about blacks against Asians.
* [http://www.deepfocusproductions.com/HollywoodChinese/ Hollywood Chinese] "Hollywood Chinese", a 2007 documentary film about the portrayals of Chinese men and women in Hollywood productions.
* [http://www.slantedscreen.com/ The Slanted Screen] "The Slanted Screen", a 2006 documentary film addressing the portrayals of Asian men in American television and film.
* [http://www.alllooksame.com AllLookSame] An educational online quiz which tests the taker's ability to differentiate persons of Chinese, Japanese, or Korean origin.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.