- Fromental Halévy
Jacques-François-Fromental-Élie Halévy (
May 27, 1799- March 17, 1862) (usually known as Fromental Halévy) was a French composer. He is known today largely for his opera" La Juive".
Halévy was born in Paris, the son of a cantor, Elie Halfon Halévy, who was the secretary of the
Jewishcommunity of Paris, a writer and a teacher of Hebrew, and a French Jewish mother. The name Fromental, by which he was generally known, reflects that he was born on the feast-day of that name in the French Revolutionary calendarwhich was still operative at that time. He entered the Paris Conservatoireat the age of nine or ten (accounts differ), in 1809, becoming a pupil and later protegé of Cherubini. After two second-place attempts, he won the Prix de Romein 1819: his cantata subject was "Herminie."
As he had to delay his departure to Rome because of the death of his mother, he was able to accept the first commission that brought him to public attention - a ' "Marche Funebre et De Profundis en Hebreu" ' for three part choir,
tenorand orchestra, which was commissioned by the "Consistoire Israélite du Département de la Seine", for a public service in memory of the assassinated duc de Berry, performed on March 24, 1820. Later, his brother Léon recalled that the "De Profundis", "infused with religious fervor, created a sensation, and attracted interest to the young laureate of the institute."
Halévy was chorus master at the Théâtre Italien, while he struggled to get an opera performed. Despite the mediocre reception of "
L'artisan", at the Opéra-Comiquein 1827, Halévy moved on to be chorus master at the Opéra. The same year he became professor of harmony and accompaniment at the Conservatoire, where he was professor of counterpoint and fugue in 1833 and of composition in 1840. He was elected to the Institut de Francein 1836.
With his opera "
La Juive", in 1835, Halévy attained not only his first major triumph, but gave the world a work that was to be one of the cornerstones of the French repertory for a century, with the role of Eléazar one of the great favorites of tenors such as Enrico Caruso. The opera's most famous aria is Eléazar's "Rachel, quand du Seigneur" . Its orchestral ritornellois the one quotation from Halévy that Berlioz included in his "Treatise on Orchestration," for its unusual duet for two cor anglais. It is probable however that this aria was inserted only at the request of the great tenor Adolphe Nourrit, who premiered the role and may have suggested the aria's text. "La Juive" is one of the grandest of grand operas, with major choruses, a spectacular procession in Act I, and impressive celebrations in Act III. It culminates with the heroine plunging into a vat of boiling water in Act V. Mahler admired it greatly, stating: "I am absolutely overwhelmed by this wonderful, majestic work. I regard it as one of the greatest operas ever created". Other admirers included Richard Wagnerwho wrote an enthusiastic review of its premiere for the German press. (Wagner never showed towards Halévy the anti-Jewish animus that was so notorious a feature of his writings on Meyerbeer).
After "La Juive" Halévy's real successes were relatively few, although at least three operas, "
L'éclair, La reine de Chypre" and "Charles VI" should be mentioned. Heinecommented that Halévy was an artist, but 'without the slightest spark of genius'. He became however a leading bureaucrat of the arts, becoming Secretary of the Académie des Beaux-Artsand presiding over committees to determine the standard pitch of orchestral A, to award prizes for operettas, and so on. The artist Delacroixoffers a chilling portrait of Halévy's decline in his diaries (5 February 1855):
I went on to Halévy’s house, where the heat from his stove was suffocating. His wretched wife has crammed his house with bric-a-brac and old furniture, and this new craze will end by driving him to a lunatic asylum. He has changed and looks much older, like a man who is being dragged on against his will. How can he possibly do serious work in this confusion? His new position at the Academy must take up a great deal of his time, and make it more and more difficult for him to find the peace and quiet he needs for his work. Left that inferno as quickly as possible. The breath of the streets seemed positively delicious.Halévy's cantata "Prométhée enchaîné" was premiered in 1849 at the Paris Conservatoire, and is generally considered the first mainstream western orchestral composition to use
Halévy died in retirement at
Nice, leaving his last opera, Noé, unfinished. It was completed by his son-in-law, Georges Bizet, but was not performed until 10 years after Bizet's own death.
Halévy wrote some forty operas in all, including:
Le roi et le batelier" (1827)
Clari" (1828), in Italian; a modest success, even with Maria Malibranin the starring role
La dilettante d'Avignon" (1828)
*"Attendre et courir" (1830)
*"La langue musicale" (1830)
*"La tentation" (1832)
*"Les souvenirs de Lafleur" (1833)
*"Ludovic" (1833), completion of an opera left unfinished by Hérold
La Juive" (1835), his first success
L'éclair" (1835), also a great success, in the same season
*"Guido et Ginevra" (1838)
* "Les treize" (1839)
*"Le shérif," (1839) which
Hector Berliozreferred to as a "delightful comic opera"
*"Le drapier" (1839)
*"Le guitarréro" (1841)
La reine de Chypre" (1841) praised by Richard Wagner
*"Charles VI" (1843) (revived at
Le lazzarone, ou Le bien vient en dormant" (1844)
*"Les mousquetaires de la reine" (1846)
*"Les premiers pas" (1847)
Le val d'Andorre" (1848)
*"La fée aux roses" (1849)
*"La tempesta" (1850), in Italian, after
Shakespeare's "The Tempest"
*"La dame de pique" (1850) (after
*"Le Juif errant" (1852) after the novel by
Le nabab" (1853)
*"Jaguarita l'Indienne" (1855)
*"Valentine d'Aubigny" (1856)
*"Noé" (1858-1862): uncompleted at Halévy's death, completed by
Halévy also wrote for the
ballet, provided incidental music for a French version of Aeschylus's "Prometheus Enchained", and wrote cantatas.
Halévy's brother was the writer and historian
Léon Halévy, who wrote an early biography of his brother and was the father of Ludovic Halévy, librettist of many French operas, including Bizet's Carmen.
Halévy's wife, Léonie, who had experienced serious mental problems during their marriage, underwent a remarkable recovery after his death and became a talented sculptress. (She was 20 years younger than he). Their daughter Genéviève married the composer Bizet, who had been one of Halévy's pupils at the Conservatoire. After Bizet's death, and an alliance with Delaborde, the son of
Charles-Valentin Alkan, Genéviève married a banker with Rothschild connections and became a leading Parisian hostess. Amongst the guests at her soirées was the young Marcel Proust, who used her as a model of the Duchesse de Guermantes in his epic " In Search of Lost Time".
*Léon Halévy, "F. Halévy, sa vie et ses oeuvres", Paris (1863).
* Ruth Jordan, "Fromental Halévy, his Life and Music 1799-1862", London (1994). ISBN 187108251X
* [http://www.hberlioz.com/Predecessors/halevy.htm Hector Berlioz: relations with Halévy]
* [http://www.public.asu.edu/~jqerics/La%20Juive.jpgJohn Ericson, "The First Orchestral Use of the Valved Horn: "La Juive"]
* [http://www.smerus.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/halevys.htm Halévy's background and family]
* [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=124&letter=H JewishEncyclopedia]
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