Fischer projection

Fischer projection

The Fischer projection, devised by Hermann Emil Fischer in 1891,cite book|title=Organic Chemistry|author=John McMurry|year=2008|edition=7th edition|publisher=Brooks/Cole - Thomson Learning, Inc.|pages=975] is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule by projection. They are used by chemists, particularly in organic chemistry and biochemistry. All bonds are depicted as horizontal or vertical lines. The carbon chain is depicted vertically, with carbon atoms represented by the center of crossing lines. The orientation of the carbon chain is so that the C1 carbon is at the top.

In a Fischer projection, all horizontal bonds project toward the viewer, while vertical bonds project away from the viewer. Therefore, a Fischer projection cannot be rotated by (2n+1)×90° in the plane of the page or the screen, as the orientation of bonds relative to one another can change, converting a molecule to its enantiomer.

Fischer projections are most commonly used in biochemistry and organic chemistry to represent monosaccharides, but can also be used for amino acids or for other organic molecules. Since Fischer projections depict the stereochemistry (three-dimensional structure) of a molecule, they are very useful for differentiating between enantiomers of chiral molecules. A computational approach to determining the chirality of a molecule based on computing the sign of a determinant is given by Cieplak and Wisniewski [Cieplak, T. and J.L. Wisniewski (2001) "A New Effective Algorithm for the Unambiguous Identification of the Stereochemical Characteristics of Compounds During Their Registration in Databases". Molecules 6:915-926. [http://www.mdpi.org/molecules/papers/61100915/61100915.htm Online Article] ] .

Haworth projections are a related chemical notation used to represent sugars in ring form. The groups on the right hand side of a Fischer projection are equivalent to those below the plane of the ring in Haworth projections. [Matthews, C. E.; K. E. Van Holde; K. G. Ahern (1999) "Biochemistry". 3rd edition. Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-3066-6] Fischer projections should not be confused with Lewis structures, which do not contain any information about three dimensional geometry.

See also

* Cahn-Ingold-Prelog priority rule
* Chair conformation
* Newman projection
* Natta projection

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Fischer projection — Fišerio projekcija statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Chiralinio atomo pakaitų erdvinio išsidėstymo plokštumoje vaizdas. atitikmenys: angl. Fischer projection rus. проекция Фишера …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • Fischer projection formula — a type of projection formula used to depict chirality, particularly for monosaccharides; in reference to the plane of symmetry defined by the central carbon chain, horizontal lines are drawn to depict substituents falling in front of the plane,… …   Medical dictionary

  • Fischer projection — Method of representing the three dimensional structures of molecules on a page, devised by Emil Fischer. By convention, horizontal lines represent bonds projecting from the plane of the paper toward the viewer, and vertical lines represent bonds… …   Universalium

  • Projection de fischer — du D glucose En chimie, particulièrement en chimie organique et en biochimie (notamment pour l étude des sucres), la projection de Fischer est une représentation plane d une molécule organique tridimensionnelle …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Projection de Fischer — des (S) 2 aminoacides En chimie, particulièrement en chimie organique et en biochimie (notamment pour l étude des sucres), la projection de Fischer est une représentation plane d une molécule organique tridimensionnelle, décrivant de manière… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Projection — Contents 1 Chemistry 2 Mathematics 3 Other 4 See also …   Wikipedia

  • Fischer — Not to be confused with Fisher PeopleFischer is a surname may refer to:A E * Abraham Fischer (1850–1913) South African public official * Ádám Fischer * Alfred Fischer (judge) (1919–2004), German judge * Alfred Fischer (architect) (1881–1950),… …   Wikipedia

  • Fischer-Projektion — Beispiel: D Glucose in der Fischer Projektion Die Fischer Projektion ist eine Methode, die Raumstruktur einer chiralen chemischen Verbindung eindeutig zweidimensional abzubilden. Sie wurde von Emil Fischer entwickelt und verwendet die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fischer , Emil Hermann — (1852–1919) German organic chemist and biochemist The son of a successful businessman from Euskirchen, now in Germany, Fischer joined his father s firm on leaving school (1869) but left in 1871 to study chemistry with August Kekulé at Bonn. He… …   Scientists

  • Fischer — /fish euhr/, n. 1. Edwin, 1886 1960, Swiss pianist. 2. Emil /ay mil/, 1852 1919, German chemist: Nobel prize 1902. 3. Ernst Otto, born 1918, German chemist: Nobel prize 1973. 4. Hans /hahns/, 1881 1945, German chemist: Nobel prize 1930. 5. Robert …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”