- The Thirteen Problems
infobox Book |
name = The Thirteen Problems
image_caption = Dust-jacket illustration of the first UK edition
cover_artist = Not known
language = English
Detective fiction Short stories
Collins Crime Club
pub_date = June 1932
media_type = Print (
pages = 256 pp (first edition, hardcover)
isbn = NA
Peril at End House
Lord Edgware Dies
"The Thirteen Problems" is a
short storycollection written by Agatha Christieand first published in the UK by Collins Crime Clubin June 1932Chris Peers, Ralph Spurrier and Jamie Sturgeon. "Collins Crime Club – A checklist of First Editions". Dragonby Press (Second Edition) March 1999 (Page 14)] and in the US by Dodd, Mead and Companyin 1933 under the title "The Tuesday Club Murders" [John Cooper and B.A. Pyke. "Detective Fiction - the collector's guide": Second Edition (Pages 82 and 87) Scholar Press. 1994. ISBN 0-85967-991-8] [http://home.insightbb.com/~jsmarcum/agatha30.htm American Tribute to Agatha Christie] ] . The UK edition retailed at seven shillingsand sixpence (7/6) and the US edition at $2.00. The thirteen stories feature her detective Miss Marpleand feature the earliest stories she wrote about the detective.
As in some of her other short story collections (e.g. "Partners in Crime"), Christie employs an over-arching narrative, making the book more like an episodic novel. There are three sets of narrative, though they themselves interrelate. The first set of six are stories told by the "Tuesday Night Club", a random gathering of people at the house of Miss Marple. Each week the group tell thrilling tales of mystery, which are always solved by Miss Marple, from the comfort of her armchair. One of the guests is Sir Henry Clithering, an ex-commissioner of
Scotland Yard, and this allows Christie to resolve the story, with him usually pointing out that the criminals were caught. The next set of six occur as part of a dinner party Miss Marple is invited to at the request of Sir Henry Clithering, as a result of her skill in the "Tuesday Night Club". This employs a similar guessing game, and once more Miss Marple triumphs. The thirteenth story, "Death by Drowning" takes place some time after the dinner party when Miss Marple finds out that Clithering is staying in St. Mary Meadand asks him to help in the investigation surrounding the death of a girl in the village.
The Tuesday Night Club
A group of friends are meeting at the house of Miss Marple in St. Mary Mead. As well as the old lady herself, there is her nephew - the writer Raymond West - the artist Joyce Lemprière, Sir Henry Clithering (a former Scotland Yard commissioner), a clergyman called Dr Pender and Mr Petherick, a solicitor. The conversation turns to unsolved mysteries and the group decides to meet every Tuesday and they must in turn tell of a real mystery and the others must try to guess a solution.
Sir Henry tells the first story of three people who sat down to a supper after which all of them fell ill, supposedly of food poisoning and one died as a result. The three people were a Mr and Mrs Jones and the wife's companion, Miss Clark, and it was Mrs Jones who died. Mr Jones was a commercial traveller and a maid in one of his hotels saw blotting paper he had used to write a letter whose decipherable phrases referred to his dependency on his wife's money, her death and "hundreds and thousands". The maid read of the death in a paper and, knowing relatives in the same village as the Jones's, wrote to them. This started a chain of gossip which led to the exhumation of the body and the discovery that Mrs Jones was poisoned by
arsenic. There was further gossip linking Mr Jones to the doctor's daughter but there was nothing substantive there. The Jones' maid, Gladys, tearfully confirmed that all three people had been served the same meal of tinned lobster, bread and cheese and trifle. She had also prepared a bowl of cornflower for Mrs Jones to calm her stomach but Miss Clark had drunk this, despite the diet she was on for her constant weight problem. Jones also had a plausible reason behind the letter which was blotted in the hotel room.
The people in the room speak of their various theories as to who the murderer is but neglect to ask Miss Marple until Sir Henry politely points out the omission. Miss Marple witters on about a similar case involving a local family (to which Raymond cannot see any relevance) until she suddenly asks Sir Henry if Gladys confessed and that she hopes Mr Jones will hang for what he made the poor girl do. The letter in the hotel room was to Gladys and the reference to "hundreds and thousands" was to the small sweets on the top of trifle. They contained the arsenic which Miss Clark had not eaten (due to her diet) and Mr Jones probably avoided eating the poisoned portion. Sir Henry confirms Miss Marple is correct. Mr Jones had got Gladys pregnant and used a promise of marriage after his wife's death to induce the girl to commit murder. Gladys confessed as she died giving birth to the baby.
The Idol House of Astarte
The group meets the following week and it is the turn of Dr Pender to tell his story. His tale is one where a man was struck down by "no human agency" and took place at a house on the edge of Dartmoor called "Silent Grove" which was newly purchased by Sir Richard Haydon, an old college friend of his. Dr Pender was invited to a house party there where they were joined by seven other people including a striking society beauty called Diana Ashley. Sir Richard was much attracted to her, as were most of the other men in the party and she bewitched them all in turn. On the moor outside the house were several relics of the
stone ageand within the grounds of the house were a grove of trees which Sir Richard fancied was an authentic grove of Astarte, in the centre of which he had built a rough temple in the form of a stone summerhouse. Diana Ashley was enthused enough by the grove and the structure it contained to wildly suggest a moonlit orgy to the goddess of the Moon, a suggestion which, unsurprisingly, was vetoed by Dr Pender and some of the others, part of their objection being a feeling of evil that the setting provoked in their imaginations. Toned down to a fancy dress party, Diana's suggestion was accepted by the others to take place that night and preparations happily took place. Diana's shapeless dress, titled 'the unknown' disappointed the group for its lack of imagination and during the party she disappeared, last being seen heading towards the grove. The others followed and found her in her true costume, magnificently adorned in the moonlight as a priestess of Astarte. She warned the others not to approach but Sir Richard did and promptly collapsed on the ground. Upon being examined by his cousin, Elliot and then Dr. Symonds, they found that he was dead, killed by a stab to the heart but no one was seen to approach him and no one weapon was on the grassy floor. They take the body into the house and the police were called. Not satisfied, Elliot went back alone to the grove to investigate further and later the others found him struck down in the same spot with a knife wound in his shoulder and the knife in his hand. His story was one of seeing an illusion of the goddess and then being struck down himself. The knife was identified as one dug up from a barrow on the moor which was kept in Sir Richard's house. The police suspected Diana but had no proof or explanation as to how she committed the crime.
The members of the Tuesday Club debate possible solutions between them and it is Miss Marple who hits on the correct one: although she does not know what caused Sir Richard to stumble – possibly a trip over a tree root – it was his cousin Elliot, who quickly stabbed him in the pretence of examining him and the knife was hidden as part of his fancy dress costume. Dr Pender confirms that five years later, Elliot wrote to him on the eve of an expedition to the
South Poleadmitting the crime and the torment he has suffered since. His motive was love for Diana Ashley and by killing his cousin he both removed a rival and inherited his riches. He hoped to atone for his guilt by dying honourably and the clergyman confirms that he did so in the end.
Ingots of Gold
Raymond West takes his turn in telling a story. It took place two years earlier when Raymond spent
Whitsunin Cornwall with a recent acquaintance called John Newman. He was something of an authority on the Spanish Armadaand had bought the salvage rights to a shipwreck from the Armada which sank off the coast and eluded many attempts at recovery over the years. Travelling by train to Newman's house in the village of Polperran, Raymond shared a carriage with Police Inspector Badgworth who knew of the Spanish treasure trove but was specifically interested in a more recent wreck of a ship called the "Otranto" which sank six months previously and whose bullion had either been removed from the ship's strongroom after the hull had been torn open on the rocks of Serpent's Point or possibly the gold had been stolen some time before. The Inspector was investigating the matter.
Arriving in Cornwall, Raymond settled into Newman's house and the following day went with him to the local pub, "The Three Anchors" where he immediately felt suspicious of the landlord, Mr Kelvin, who made meaningful comments about the police and other "foreigners" looking into local matters. The next day, Sunday, saw a storm brewing over the area which coincided with Raymond having a feeling of foreboding. This feeling was justified when Newman went out for a walk that night and failed to return although his disappearance was not noticed until the following day. A search was set up and the missing man was found bound and gagged in a local ditch. His story was that he spotted some men bringing something onto a beach by boat in a local spot appropriately called "Smuggler's Cove" and then putting the cargo into a local cave. The men set upon him, bound him and drove him to the ditch in a lorry. Badgworth found evidence that the cave had been used to store something but, more importantly, tyre tracks on the route that Newman was taken on matched a tyre on a lorry owned by Mr Kelvin. A night-nurse of a neighbour of the pub was able to testify however that the lorry was never taken out of its garage on the night in question. Kelvin therefore evaded arrest and Raymond didn't know the solution to the mystery.
Again it is Miss Marple who hits on the solution when she admonishes her nephew on his choice of friends and Sir Henry, laughing, confirms that he knows something of the case and that the old lady is right. Newman is not the man's real name and he is now in Princetown Prison for the theft of gold from a London strongroom. He used the wreck and smuggling story to cover his tracks and Kelvin was set up as a scapegoat. The landlord's lorry was never used but a tyre was taken off it during the night and put on another lorry to provide the "evidence". Newman's accomplice was probably his gardener who Raymond saw working on a bed of rose trees on the Monday morning when they realised Newman was "missing" – as Miss Marple states, real gardeners never work on
The Blood-Stained Pavement
Joyce Lemprière's story also takes place in Cornwall, in the picturesque village of Rathole. One morning, she was painting a picture of the "Polharwith Arms" when two cars drew up within a couple of minutes of each other. The first contained a couple and the second a scarlet-dressed woman. The man in the couple, "Denis" recognised the lone woman as "Carol", an old friend, and introduced her to his somewhat plain wife, "Margery". As Joyce worked on her canvas she overheard the conversation of the three people and Denis's suggestion of hiring a rowboat to take them round the coast to a local cave. Carol, disliking boats, agreed to walk to the spot and meet the couple there. That afternoon, Joyce had returned to her canvas in front of the pub spotted two bathing suits drying in the sun from the balcony of the pub and assumed that the three people had returned. A local man engaged her in somewhat unwanted conversation and distracted her from her work. Before she realised what she had done, she seemed to have painted in bloodstains on the pavement in front of the pub and was astonished to find that she had captured reality – there did seem to be bloodstains on the pavement that were not there a short time before. Before she could take any action, Denis emerged from the pub and asked Joyce and the local man if they had seen Carol return. The three had met at the cave, as agreed, and Carol had supposedly walked back to Rathole but not arrived, although her car was still there. Denis and Margery drove off and Joyce inspected the pavement – only to find the bloodstains gone.
Two days later, she read in the paper that Margery had disappeared while bathing in the sea and a week later her body was found washed up with a blow to the head, supposedly caused when she dived into the water on some rocks.
The men in the Tuesday Club feel that there is very little in the story to go on but Miss Marple points out that they do not appreciate the point about clothes as she and Joyce do. The bloodstains "were" on the pavement, dripping from one of the bathing suits which was scarlet in colour. The criminals didn't realise that when they hung them up to dry. Joyce confirms her point and finishes the story: a year later, at an east coast resort, she saw the same set up again with Denis, Carol and another woman, supposedly Denis' new wife. Although she didn't know exactly what was happening Joyce went to the police station and reported suspicious activity. A Scotland Yard inspector was already there investigating Denis who, under several names, had married women, insured their lives for large sums, and then killed them in a conspiracy with Carol – his real wife. The woman that Joyce saw in Rathole at the time that the bloodstains were on the pavement wasn't Margery but Carol in disguise. When they killed the real Margery during the trip to the cave, blood must have got itself onto the scarlet bathing suit.
Motive "v." Opportunity
Mr Petherick tells his story which has a legal background. A client of his, who he calls Simon Clode, was a wealthy man who had one son who was killed in the war and left an orphaned granddaughter who in turn died when she was a child, leaving the old man bereft and grief-stricken. A brother of his had also recently died and his three children, Grace, Mary and George – all grown-up by the time of the story - came to live with Simon. His will left his estate to these three in equal shares. Grace married but lived nearby with her husband, Philip. George found employment in a bank while Mary stayed behind to care for Simon. The old man still pined for his granddaughter and found himself under the influence of an American spiritualist, Mrs Eurydice Spragg, and her husband, Absalom. Mrs Spragg conducted many
séanceswhich resulted in Simon Clode 'contacting' his granddaughter and the Spraggs were virtually resident in the house.
Alarmed by this, Mr Petherick visited his client and then suggested to Grace's husband, Philip, that a noted professor on the subject of spiritualism be invited to the house and be witness to several of the séances. This happened with the results that the professor stated that the Spraggs were frauds. At hearing this, Simon Clode threw Philip out of the house in a fit of anger. The old man then fell ill and was obviously near death. He instructed Petherick to attend him to draw up a new will leaving five thousand pounds to each of his nieces and nephews and the greater part to the Spraggs. As the old man lay in his bed, Petherick tried to dissuade Clode against the terms of the new will but to no avail. Two servants were summoned, instructed to fetch a pen and witness the will which Clode wrote out himself and then gave to Petherick for safekeeping.
After this part of the business had been concluded, Petherick went downstairs for tea and to help George Clode with some matters to do with the estate. During this period, Petherick left his overcoat where only Mrs Spragg could have gained access to the envelope with the will in it. Petherick took it to his office where he was soon visited by Mr Spragg who was left alone with the will for a few moments.
Two months later, Clode died. When the will was opened, the sheets of paper were blank. Petherick's problem was that the only two people – the Spraggs – who had access to the document - the "opportunity" - did not have a good reason to substitute the will when they were the beneficiaries - the "motive".
Miss Marple again guesses the solution when she compares the actions to those of Tommy Symonds – a local mischievous boy. The pen that was used to write out the will contained
invisible ink. Petherick confirms that Philip confessed as much in a guarded conversation he had with him a month later. The house servants were told which pen to fetch for Simon Clode if it looked like he was going to be signing a legal form and they complied with the instructions. The three children gained their rightful inheritance.
The Thumb Mark of St. Peter
The final story to be told at the regular meeting of the Tuesday Club comes from Miss Marple herself. It concerns a niece of hers called Mabel who obstinately married Geoffrey Denham when she was twenty-two, despite Denham having a violent temper and there being a history of insanity in his family. Ten years later he died and Miss Marple wrote to offer to stay with her for while but received a reply back that politely refused the offer. Three months later a second letter was sent to her Aunt hysterically begging her to come.
Arriving at her niece’s house which Mabel shares with two servants her a nursemaid for her mentally-ill father-in-law, Miss Marple learned that the widow was the subject of gossip to the effect that she murdered her husband and no one in the area would now talk to her. Geoffrey had been taken ill in the night and died soon after the doctor arrived but the old locum had not raised the alarm about the manner of death. It was thought that he had died after eating poisoned mushrooms. The two servants told Miss Marple that Denham had been unable to swallow and was rambling before he died about fish. An exhumation order was granted followed by an
autopsythat proved totally inconclusive. Miss Marple began to wonder if Geoffrey had committed suicide and used a knowledge of medicine gained in a previous period of his life to do so. Totally stumped by the problem, she was in the high street and in something of a silent prayer for guidance when she opened her eyes and saw a fresh haddockin the fishmonger’s window with its characteristic black spots known as the "thumb mark of St. Peter". She realised that the solution lay in the mysterious words uttered by Geoffrey as he lay dying. Questioning the servants further, they stated that the words were to do with a "heap" or "pile" of some fish whose name probably began with "c". Checking a list of poisons, Miss Marple found one called Pilocarpineand read that it is also an antidote for atropinepoisoning. Based on her own eyedrops which contain atropine sulphate she confronted the elderly Mr. Denham and accused him of murdering his son. The old insane man laughingly confessed the crime, committed because he overheard his son planning to put him in an asylum. He emptied his eye solution into his son’s bedside glass of water knowing that Geoffrey would drink it in the night. Mr Denham is committed to an asylum after all and the Tuesday Club congratulates Miss Marple on her success although Raymond points out there is one thing she doesn’t know. His aunt corrects him – she knows that he proposed to Joyce earlier in the evening!
The Blue Geranium
A year has passed and Sir Henry Clithering is once again in St. Mary Mead staying as a guest of Colonel Arthur Bantry and his wife, Dolly. Asked for suggestions as to a sixth person for dinner, he names Miss Marple and tells an incredulous Dolly of her success at solving last year’s mysteries. Dolly wonders if the old lady could solve a ghost mystery that Arthur has...
Subsequently, Miss Marple is at the Bantry’s together with Sir Henry, an actress called Jane Helier and Dr. Lloyd. Arthur Bantry tells of a friend of his called George Pritchard whose late wife was a difficult and cantankerous semi-invalid and who had a succession of nurses looking after her. They changed regularly unable to cope with their patient with one exception called Nurse Copling who somehow managed the tantrums and complaints better than others of her calling.
Mrs Pritchard had a predilection for fortunetellers and one day one who called herself Zarida came to the house when both George and Nurse Copling were out of the house on their separate business. Arriving back home, Mrs Pritchard told George that Zarida had declared the house to be “evil” and to avoid blue flowers. Two days later a letter arrives from the fortuneteller that says “Beware of the Full Moon. The Blue
Primrosemeans warning; the Blue Hollyhockmeans danger; the Blue Geraniummeans death.” Four days later, one of the primroses in the pattern of the wallpaper in Mrs Pritchard’s room changed colour to blue in the middle of the night when there had been a full moon. A month went by with Mrs Pritchard counting down the days to the next full moon. Sure enough the same thing happened with a Hollyhock on the wallpaper changing colour, even though the door was locked.
Another month passed with Nurse Copling and Pritchard growing increasingly nervous while Mrs Pritchard seems resigned. The morning after the next full moon, Mrs Pritchard was found dead in her bed, her
smelling saltsbeside her, a faint smell of gas in the room and a geranium on the wallpaper turned blue. There was gossip following the death and an exhumation but still no clear result. Moreover, Zarida had disappeared and no one could properly trace how Mrs Pritchard came to hear of her.
Once again Miss Marple has the solution. Having once seen a gardener mixing
Cyanideof potassiumwith water to kill wasps, she was struck how much the solution looked like smelling salts. If such a solution was substituted for the bottle Mrs Pritchard always kept, the cyanide would kill her but no trace would soon remain. The gas covered the smell of almondsthat would remain for only a short time. The flowers on the wall were red litmus paperwhich the ammonia in the true smelling salts turned blue as an alkaloid. All this was carried out by Nurse Copling who was Zarida in disguise in the forlorn hope of marrying Mr Pritchard after his wife had died. Sir Henry confirms that Nurse Copling was recently arrested for a similar murder.
Dr Lloyd is called upon to tell his story and it begins in Las Palmas on the island of
Gran Canaria. The doctor was living there for health reasons and one night, in the principal hotel of the town, he caught sight of two middle-aged ladies, one slightly plump, one somewhat scraggy, who he found out from a perusal of the hotel register were called Miss Mary Barton and Miss Amy Durrant and who were tourists from England. The very next day, Dr Lloyd travelled to the other side of the island with friends for a picnic and reaching the bay of Las Nieves the group came upon the end of a tragedy: Miss Durrant had been swimming when she got into trouble and Miss Barton swam out to help her but to no avail and the other woman drowned. As part of the ensuing investigation, Miss Barton revealed that Miss Durrant was her companion of some five months. Dr Lloyd was puzzled by the claim made by one of the witnesses who swore that she saw Miss Barton holding Miss Durant’s head under the water, not helping her, but the claim was dismissed as none of the other witnesses backed up the story. Dr Lloyd helped Miss Barton try and trace next-of-kin but to no avail and he also helped arrange the funeral that took place on the island. Before she left Gran Canaria ten days later, Miss Barton asked Dr Lloyd several strange questions regarding the justification of taking the law into one’s own hands. Miss Marple is interested to know if Miss Barton suddenly put on weight during this period and the doctor is able to confirm that she did.
Some time later, Dr Lloyd read in the papers that Miss Barton herself drowned in Cornwall, although the body was never found. She left a suicide note which seemed to confess to some crime and the inquest ruled that she was temporarily insane.
The party at the Bantry’s try to guess the story behind these strange events. Miss Marple, comparing the tale to that of a local fraudster called Mrs Trout who claimed several dead people’s old age pensions, states that "Miss Barton" was a clever criminal who drowned the other woman and then assumed her identity – hence the reason she looked fat – she was simply wearing the other person’s clothes. The really significant fact was that the body in Cornwall was never found – this was another part of the deception.
Dr Lloyd confirms that he met the lady again by coincidence in
Melbourne, Australia. Miss Barton was in fact Miss Durrant. Two tourists would not have been known to anyone and no one realised who was the employer and who was the companion in Gran Canaria until Miss Durrant, adopting the other person’s identity after killing her, told them a falsehood. The two women were in fact cousins. Miss Durrant was the eldest of nine children in desperate straits with some suffering ill-health. They wrote to their relative in England for help but she refused because of a family quarrel from years earlier. "Miss Durrant" travelled to England under this assumed name, was employed by Miss Barton, killed her, adopted her guise in Gran Canaria, faked her death in Cornwall and then she and her siblings inherited her money as next-of-kin. Dr Lloyd met her family and realised the harm he would cause them by reporting their elder sister to the police for a crime for which he had little evidence. Six months later, the lady herself died, possibly unrepentant to the end.
The Four Suspects
Sir Henry Clithering tells his story but it is one where he does not have the solution, only a puzzle where there are four suspects, three of who are therefore as much victims as the real victim in that they are under constant suspicion. It concerns a German secret society, the "Schwartze Hand", started after the war and who were similar in their methods and objectives to the
Camorra. A Dr. Rosen, prominent in secret service work, penetrated the organisation and managed to bring about its downfall. Despite this success, he was a marked man and came to England, living in a cottage in Somersetfully expecting to be murdered one day. His household consisted of his niece Greta, an old servant called Gertrude, a local gardener called Dobbs and Dr. Rosen's secretary, Charles Templeton, who Clithering reveals was one of his men, put in the house to keep an eye on things but possibly not totally above suspicion.
The tragedy occurred when Dr. Rosen was found at the bottom of the stairs, possibly having fallen down, possibly having been pushed. The four people in the locked house were out at the time but none can produce an alibi for the time of the death. In addition, no strangers were seen in the vicinity where they would easily have stood out and been spotted, therefore one of the four must be guilty. One puzzle is how the killer received their instructions. The only people to come to the house that day were the butcher, the grocer's assistant and the postman. The latter brought several letters for various members of the house including a gardening catalogue and a letter for Charles Templeton which appeared to have been sent from relatives in Germany and which he soon ripped up and threw away. Of the letters that the police were able to examine, the strangest was one addressed to Dr. Rosen himself which was addressed by someone called Georgine and speaks of several people who Dr. Rosen had never heard of. Sir Henry shows the group the letter and Miss Marple wonders why the word "Honesty" which appears in the middle of a sentence is spelt with a capital letter.
Three months after the death of her uncle, Greta Rosen went back to Germany but not before seeing Sir Henry and asking him to confirm that Charles was above suspicion. Sir Henry was unable to do so.
As Sir Henry is not a gardener, Miss Marple and Mrs Bantry point out that the three people in the letter and the one place name, together with the word "Honesty" are all species of Dahlias and that rearranged they spell "Death". This was the instruction to kill Dr. Rosen and it was sent to the intended victim himself to allay suspicion from the assassin. Receiving a letter from someone he didn't know, he would naturally give it to the other people at the breakfast table to read, one being Charles, the secretary and natural suspect, but the other being his niece, who would be guaranteed to be shown a strange letter. Her visit to Sir Henry to try and clear Charles' name was all along intended to have the opposite effect.
Miss Marple also remembers, from her childhood German
governess, that "Georgine" is German for Dahlia and that Dahlias are symbolic for "Treachery and Misrepresentation".
A Christmas Tragedy
The ladies are prevailed upon to tell a story and Miss Marple is the one who relates a tale of when she was staying at Keston Spa Hydro just before
Christmas. Feeling that older and more experienced people’s feelings and intuitions are too often easily dismissed when such feelings are based on actual facts and experience, she relates how when she saw a couple called Jack and Gladys Sanders together, she just knew that the husband meant to murder his wife. The motive was money; they were living off her income but could not touch the capital in her lifetime however she could will the money away and had done this in favour of her husband. Miss Marple’s feelings were confirmed when she shared a tramride with the couple and witnessed Mr Sanders "tripping" on the stairs onto his wife who then fell down but was fortunately saved by the conductor.
The atmosphere of on-coming tragedy was heightened when the hall porter passed away from
pneumoniafollowed soon after by one of the hydro’s housemaids died of blood poisoning. Miss Marple dates the tragedy from when Mr Sanders overheard her and two other ladies talking about this latter death. His wife was out playing bridge with friends and early in the evening Mr Sanders returned from a trip out with two of his friends and asked Miss Marple and the other ladies’ opinions on an evening bag that he’d bought his wife for a Christmas present. They went up to his room and saw the body of Mrs Sanders on the floor, felled by a sandbag. Immediately suspicious, Miss Marple refused to allow her husband to touch the body and insisted the door was locked and the police called for.
When they arrived, they investigated in the room asking Miss Marple to be present. She noticed that the woman’s hat was lying besides the body now whereas previously she had been wearing it. Prompted by the police, she also noticed that she was no longer wearing earrings whereas she had been when the body was first discovered. Mrs Sander’s other jewellery is missing and the police are certain the thief came back after killing the woman and made entry by means of the
Mrs Sanders had been summoned back to the hydro from her bridge game by a mysterious telephone call but her husband had a perfect alibi for all the period in question, that is after she had left the bridge game but before the discovery of the body. It was two days before Miss Marple guessed at the truth and asked the police to try the discarded hat on the dead woman’s head – it didn't fit. She realised that the body they saw and quickly locked in the room when they first discovered it was not that of Mrs Sanders but the dead housemaid who was awaiting collection by the undertakers. Sanders had put the body there during the period when his wife was playing bridge and had then rushed into the grounds after the "discovery", supposedly overcome with grief. There he had met his wife returning from the game, summoned by him on the telephone using an alias, somehow persuaded her up to their room by means of the fire escape, killed her and then swapped the clothes, returning the dead housemaid to her room. The one thing he couldn’t do was put the hat back on his wife’s head as her shingled hair meant it didn’t fit. The cheap hat they found was the property of the housemaid as Mrs Sanders’ hat cupboard was locked at the time her husband was placing the dead girl in his room and a hat was needed to cover the face. Sanders is hanged for his crime.
The Herb of Death
A reluctant Mrs Bantry is prevailed upon to take her turn. She relates how she and her husband were guests at of Sir Ambrose Bercy at his house at Clodderham Court. Sage leaves were picked from the garden for dinner that night but unfortunately foxglove was growing among the sage and they too were included in the stuffing for the meal of duck. All of the people at dinner were ill but one of them – Sir Ambrose’s ward, Sylvia Keene – died. The inquest heard that death was due to poisoning by digitalis.
Among the party was a young man called Jerry Lorimer who was engaged to Sylvia, to the opposition of Sir Ambrose but after a year of the
engagementhe had given in. Also there was Maud Wye, supposedly a friend of Jerry’s but Mrs Bantry had seen Jerry kissing her one evening. Six months after Sylvia’s death, the two were married.
Dr Lloyd is puzzled as a fatal poisoning by the use of floxglove leaves – if it was an accident – is difficult to achieve; the
alkaloidhas to be extracted with great care and Sir Henry latches onto the main problem of the case, that being how do you ensure that only your victim dies if you poisoneveryone, including yourself (assuming the murderer to be one of the house party)?
It was Sylvia herself who picked the foxglove leaves and Dr Lloyd wonders if the intended victim was Sir Ambrose who was prescribed drugs for his heart condition. Miss Marple latches onto this clue and finds the solution – Sir Ambrose’s drug was digitalin. He planted the foxglove seed among the sage a long time before and mild poisoning ensued at the dinner party but somehow he fed his ward further doses at the same from his own drug thereby killing her but making it look like an accident. The motive was jealousy – he was in love with his ward and determined that she wouldn’t marry Lorimer. Mrs Bantry confirms that she received a letter from Sir Ambrose after he died, to be posted onto her in the event of his death, in which he confessed the crime.
The Affair at the Bungalow
Jane Helier, the beautiful but somewhat vacuous actress is the last to tell a story. Although she attempts to disguise the fact somewhat by using a false name, the others quickly realise that the story is about herself and, slipping up several times, she soon gives up the pretence and continues...
She was on tour in a provincial town when she was summoned to a police station. There had been a burglary at a
bungalowand a young man called Leslie Faulkener had been arrested. His story was that he was an unsuccessful playwrightand had sent one of his efforts to Jane to read. She had written to him to say that she liked it and to come down to the bungalow to discuss it. He had gone, been shown in by the parlourmaid, met Jane and drunk a cocktail. The next thing he knew was that he was waking up by the roadside. He staggered along and was quickly picked up by the police.
The bungalow belonged to a Sir Herman Cohen, a rich city gent, and in it he installed his mistress. She was an actress called Mary Kerr, the wife of another actor, called Claude Leeson (although Jane admits these are not the participant’s real names). Someone calling herself Miss Kerr had rung up the police, told them the bungalow had been burgled and described Leslie Faulkener as having visited there earlier that day but having been refused admittance. He was later seen by a maid as gaining entrance through a window to steal Miss Kerr’s jewellery.
The police did indeed find the bungalow rifled and a large quantity of jewels missing. Miss Kerr soon returned but denied any knowledge of the affair or even of having rung up the police. Both she and the maid had been summoned away for the day on separate false pretexts and had never been in the bungalow when Mr Faulkener either visited, whether by invitation or not. When Jane was brought face to face with Faulkener at the police station, he stated that this was not the woman he met at the bungalow and the note was proven not to be in Jane’s handwriting. Faulkener was released through lack of evidence. Sir Herman tried to hush the matter up but failed and his wife started
divorceproceedings when she found out about the affair with the actress.
The people at the Bantry’s try to guess the solution but fail and are annoyed when Jane confesses that she doesn’t know the true solution herself. The group disperse for the night, their six stories told and Miss Marple whispers something in Jane’s ear that causes the actress to cry out in shock. Later she confesses to Mrs Bantry that the story she told never happened but Jane was thinking of carrying out such a scheme against an actress who enticed one of her previous husbands away from her. She is now having an affair with a city
knightin precisely the way that Jane recounted and she and her understudyconcocted the set-up described to expose her. Miss Marple’s warning was to not put herself at the mercy of the understudy should she prove untrustworthy in the future. Jane decides not to proceed with the plan – there might be other Miss Marples out there who would find her out...
Death by Drowning
Some time has passed since the six people met at the Bantry’s and Sir Henry is once again a guest there when news reaches the house early one morning that a local girl called Rose Emmott has been found drowned in the river near to the mill. Local gossip was that she was pregnant by a young man called Rex Sandford who is an
architectfrom London and the local feeling now is that she killed herself, unable to face her father with the truth.
Later in the morning, Sir Henry receives a visit from an upset Miss Marple who tells Sir Henry that Rose was murdered and she doesn’t want the wrong man to be hanged for the crime. She asks him to see Colonel Melchett, the
Chief Constable, and try and get him to investigate thoroughly. She even writes down the name of her suspect on a piece of paper for Sir Henry to look at later should he feel that the investigation is getting nowhere.
With some reluctance, Sir Henry meets Melchett and Inspector Drewitt who is investigating the case. By now the police know that the girl did not commit suicide as bruises have been found on her upper arm where she was grabbed before being thrown in the river and a small boy walking in the woods nearby on the evening before both heard her cry and found her body. Sir Henry joins the two policemen as they continue their investigations. They meet Rose’s father who runs the village pub. He definitely thinks Sandford is the murderer. They call on the architect who confesses that he is the father of the unborn child and that he wrote a note to Rose, suggesting a meeting at the river when she insisted on speaking with him. He walked through the woods near the river but failed to keep the appointment. He is told that he is the prime suspect in the case and not to leave his house.
To wrap matters up, the three men visit the cottage of a
widow, Mrs Bartlett, who has a young lodger called Joe Ellis staying with her. This young man was besotted with Rose and he states that he would have married Rose and brought up the baby as his own. At the time of the murder, he was putting up some shelves in Mrs Bartlett’s kitchen and she can provide his alibi.
At Sir Henry’s insistence, they interview the small boy who heard the cry from Rose before she entered the water. He saw Sandford in the woods and thinks he also heard Joe Ellis whistling. He definitely saw two men with what seemed to be a
wheelbarrowin the gathering dusk.Sir Henry, defeated in his attempt to clear Sandford, visits Miss Marple who tells him Mrs Bartlett couldn’t have been home on a Friday – the night in question. She takes in washing as extra income and on Friday’s she takes it round in an old pram. Sir Henry goes back to Mrs Bartlett’s where Joe confesses to being in the woods but denies hurting Rose. He then confronts Mrs Bartlett to the effect that she too was in the woods near the river. The "wheelbarrow" that was seen was the pram with the washing and it was Mrs Bartlett who threw Rose in the water, as she herself was in love with Joe. Not wanting to see the young man hanged, she confesses but is puzzled as to how Sir Henry knew. He consults the note Miss Marple gave him on which she clearly names Mrs Bartlett as the murderer.
Literary significance and reception
Times Literary Supplement" of September 8, 1932 stated, "It is easy to invent an improbable detective, like this elderly spinster who has spent all her life in one village, but by no means so easy to make her detections plausible. Sometimes Miss Marple comes dangerously near those detectives with a remarkable and almost superhuman intuition who solve every mystery as if they knew the answer beforehand, but this is not often and Mrs. Christie shows great skill in adapting her problems so that she can find analogies in Miss Marple's surroundings." The review concluded that "in general these are all problems to try the intellect rather than the nerves of the reader." ["The Times Literary Supplement" September 8, 1932 (Page 625)]
Isaac Anderson in "
The New York Times Book Review"'s issue of March 5, 1933 said, "The stories are slight in structure, but they present some very pretty problems and introduce us to some truly interesting people. Miss Marple...is in a class by herself. She does not call herself a detective, but she could give almost any of the regular sleuths cards and spades and beat him at his own game." ["The New York Times Book Review" March 5, 1933 (Page 14)]
The Scotsman" of June 6, 1932 said, "The stories are worthy alike of Mrs Christie's powers of invention, and of the 'Crime Club' series in which they are issued." ["The Scotsman" June 6, 1932 (Page 2)]
Daily Mirror" of June 13, 1932 said, "The plots are so good that one marvels at the prodigality which has been displayed, as most of them would have made a full-length thriller." ["Daily Mirror" June 13, 1932 (Page 17)] Robert Barnard: "Early Marple, in which she solves cases described by other amateur and professional murder buffs gathered in an ad hoc club. Some engaging stories, but the sedentary format (cf. Orczy's "Old Man in the Corner" stories) becomes monotonous over the book length. Contains one of Christie's few excursions into the working class, "Death by Drowning"." [Barnard, Robert. "A Talent to Deceive – an appreciation of Agatha Christie" - Revised edition (Page 207). Fontana Books, 1990. ISBN 0006374743]
References or Allusions
References to other works
* In both "A Christmas Tragedy" and "The Herb of Death", Sir Henry Clithering teasingly calls Mrs Bantry "
Scheherazade", the legendary storyteller of " One Thousand and One Nights".
References to actual history, geography and current science
* Serpent's Rock, referred to in "Ingots of Gold" is undoubtedly based on
The Lizard. The village of Polperran could be any of the local coastal villages, such as Porthleven, as the area has a long history of smuggling and shipwrecks although Christie's name is wordplay on the name of Polperrowhich is further east up the coast from The Lizard.
* The second Cornish story in the collection, "The Bloodstained Pavement", has a much more recognisable locale in the village of
Mousehole, comically renamed "Rathole" in Christie's narrative (the fictional village is also referenced in "Ingots of Gold"). The pub in the story, the "Polharwith Arms", is in reality the "Keigwin Arms", which, like its fictional counterpart, survived destruction by the Spanish in 1595.
* 1932, Collins Crime Club (London), June 1932, Hardcover, 256 pp
* 1933, Dodd Mead and Company (New York), 1933, Hardcover, 253 pp
Dell Books(New York), Paperback, (Dell number 8 [Mapback| [mapback] )
Penguin Books, Paperback, (Penguin number 929), 224 pp (under slightly revised title of "Miss Marple and the Thirteen Problems")
Avon Books(New York), Paperback (Avon number T245)
Pan Books, Paperback (Great Pan G472), 186 pp
* 1963, Dell Books (New York), Paperback, 192 pp
* 1965, Fontana Books (Imprint of
HarperCollins), Paperback, 192 pp
* 1968, Ulverscroft
Large-printEdition, Hardcover, 207 pp ISBN 0-85-456475-6
* 1972, Greenway edition of collected works (William Collins), Hardcover, 222 pp
* 1973, Greenway edition of collected works (Dodd Mead), Hardcover, 222 pp
* 2005, Marple Facsimile edition (Facsimile of 1932 UK first edition), September 12, 2005, Hardcover, ISBN 0-00-720843-X
First publication of stories
All but one of the stories (the exception being "The Four Suspects") first appeared in the UK in monthly fiction magazines. The first sequence of six stories appeared in "The Royal Magazine" with illustrations for all the instalments by Gilbert Wilkinson as follows:
* "The Tuesday Night Club" - first published in issue 350 in December 1927.
* "The Idol House of Astarte" - first published in issue 351 in January 1928.
* "Ingots of Gold" - first published in issue 352 in February 1928
* "The Blood-Stained Pavement" - first published in issue 353 in March 1928.
* "Motive versus Opportunity" - first published in issue 354 in April 1928.
* "The Thumb Mark of St. Peter" - first published in issue 355 in May 1928.
After eighteen months, the second sequence of stories appeared in a slightly differing order to the book collection and un-illustrated in "The Story-Teller Magazine" as follows:
* "The Blue Geranium" - first published in issue 272 in December 1929.
* "A Christmas Tragedy" - first published under the alternative title of "The Hat and the Alibi" in issue 273 in January 1930.
* "The Companion" - first published under the alternative title of "The Resurrection of Amy Durrant" in issue 274 in February 1930.
* "The Herb of Death" - first published in issue 275 in March 1930.
* "The Four Suspects" - first published in issue 276 in April 1930.
* "The Affair at the Bungalow" - first published in issue 277 in May 1930.
The final story in the book, "Death by Drowning", was first published in issue 462 of "Nash's Pall Mall Magazine" in November 1931 with illustrations by J.A. May.
In the US, the first six stories appeared in "
Detective Story Magazine" in 1928 with uncredited illustrations as follows:
* "The Tuesday Night Club" - first published in Volume 101, Number 5 on June 2 under the title "The Solving Six".
* "The Idol House of Astarte" - first published in Volume 101, Number 6 on June 9 under the title "The Solving Six and the Evil Hour".
* "Ingots of Gold" - first published in Volume 102, Number 1 on June 16 under the title "The Solving Six and the Golden Grave".
* "The Blood-Stained Pavement" - first published in Volume 102, Number 2 on June 23 under the title "Drip! Drip!"
* "Motive versus Opportunity" - first published in Volume 102, Number 3 on June 30 under the title "Where's the Catch?"
* "The Thumb Mark of St. Peter" - first published in Volume 102, Number 4 on July 7 under its original title.
In addition, "The Four Suspects" received its first true publication in the US in the January 1930 issue (Volume 31, Number 4) of "Pictorical Review". The same magazine also printed "The Blue Geranium" in February 1930 (Volume 31, Number 5) and "The Companion" in March 1930 (Volume 31, Number 6) under the slightly revised title of "Companions". These three instalments were illustrated by De Alton Valentine.
"The Tuesday Night Club" short story received its first book publication in the anthology "The Best Detective Stories of the Year 1928", edited by
Ronald Knoxand H. Harrington and published in the UK by Faber and Faberin 1929 and in the US by Horace Liverightin the same year under the slightly amended title of "The Best English Detective Stories of 1928".
The dedication of the book reads:
"To Leonard and Katharine Woolley"
Leonard Woolley(1880-1960), knighted in 1935, was a famous British archaeologist who was in the middle of several seasons excavating the ancient city of Urwhen he and his wife Katharine (1888-1945) met Christie in 1928. She was on a solo trip to the Middle Eastfollowing the painful divorce from her first husband, Archibald Christie. Having read in the " Illustrated London News" about the progress of the dig she made a visit there and, unusually for the Woolley's, was made welcome. This special treatment was entirely due to Katharine's admiration for Christie's 1926 novel " The Murder of Roger Ackroyd" [Morgan, Janet. "Agatha Christie, A Biography". (Pages 171-172) Collins, 1984 ISBN 0-00-216330-6] . The situation was further unusual in that Katharine was not a woman that other women found easy to get on with. Incredibly self-centred and difficult, she preferred to surround herself with men who she then expected would accede to her demands and whims, such as brushing her hair or walking miles to purchase her favourite confectionery which she would then eat in one sitting, making her sick. She was described by Gertrude Bellas "dangerous" [Morgan. (Page 172).] . Her marriage to Leonard was a second marriage for her, her first husband having committed suicide within six months of the marriage in 1919 [Thompson, Laura. "Agatha Christie, An English Mystery". (Page 285) Headline, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7553-1487-4] . Christie met her second husband, Max Mallowan, on their dig in 1930 when she returned there, having formed a somewhat fragile relationship with the Woolleys. Max and Agatha's romance required very careful handling as far as the Woolleys were concerned as they could easily have damaged Max's career. They accepted the news of the engagement but made Max work to the last moment before the wedding and refused to allow Agatha to travel with Max to the dig the first season after their marriage as they had a rule that wives were not allowed. Fortunately, it was Max's last dig with the Woolleys [Thompson. (Pages 298-299).] . Christie refers to this incident in " Death in the Clouds" (1935) and even more pointedly based the character of the unstable Louise Leidner in " Murder in Mesopotamia" (1936) on Katharine [Morgan. (Page 210).] .
blurbon the inside flap of the dustjacketof the first edition (which is also repeated opposite the title page) reads:
"The appearance of Miss Marple in "Murder at the Vicarage" provided detective fiction with a new and distinctive character. Miss Marple, that delightfully clever village spinster who solves the most amazing mysteries quietly and unobtrusively from her chair by the fireside, appears in each of the stories comprising "The Thirteen Problems". Each story is a little masterpiece of detection, clever and ingenious, with just that added twist that only Agatha Christie can give."
* [http://us.agathachristie.com/site/find_a_story/stories/The_Thirteen_Problems.php "The Thirteen Problems"] at the official Agatha Christie website
* [http://avenarius.sk/Quotations:The_Thirteen_Problems Wiki collection of quotations from "The Thirteen Problems"]
* [http://www.fathom.com/course/21701725/session2.html "British Museum"] webpage on Christie and Mallowan's work with Leonard and Katharine Woolley.
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