- Krishna district
Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type = district
native_name = Krishna
hq = Machilipatnam
area_total = 8727
latd = 16.17
longd = 81.13
locator_position = right
state_name = Andhra Pradesh
collector = naveen mittal
population_total = 4,187,841 (2001 Census)
population_density = 479
website = http://www.krishna.gov.in
Krishna District (Telugu: కృష్ణా జిల్లా,
Hindi: कृष्णा ज़िला) is a district of India's Andhra Pradeshstate. It is named after the Krishna Riverwhich flows through the district. It has a population of 4,187,841 of which 32.08% is urban as of 2001. [ [http://www.censusindiamaps.net/page/India_WhizMap/IndiaMap.htm Census GIS India ] ] Machilipatnamis the administrative headquarters of the district. Vijayawadais the commercial center of the district. The district is bounded by KhammamDistrict to the north-west, West GodavariDistrict to the north-east, the Bay of Bengalto the south-east, Guntur Districtto the southwest, and NalgondaDistrict to the west.
Krishna district is well known for its pre-university educational centers.
This history of this region dates back to 2nd century BCE. [cite web
Satavahana period (230 BC -227 AD): The Satavahanas ruled this region with headquarters at
Srikakulam. Prominent rulers during this period were Srimukha (founder), Goutamputra Satakarni and Yagnasri Satakarni (last Satavahan king). The Satavahanas imparted more stability and security to the life of the people of the region for more than four centuries. Pallavas500 AD - 340 AD):The Pallava kingdom spread over from Krishna river to Tungabhadra, including Amaravati in the East, Bellary in the West and Kancheepuram in the South with capital cities at venginagar near Ellore and Pithapuram, both in Vengidesa.
Bruhitpalayanas: The contemporaries of pallavas who ruled the district with
Koduruas their capital.
Vishnu kundinas (5th Century AD): The 5th century rulers who excavated cave temples at Mogalrajapuram (now in
Vijayawada) and Undavalli, etc.
Eastern chalukyas ( 615 AD - 1070 AD): The entire andhra country was under the control of a single ruler under their reign. The Eastern Chalukyas were credited with the excavations of the cave temple at Undavalli and rock cut shrines and Shiva temples.
Cholas: Cholas ruled this region with capital at Rajamahendri . It was during Rajarajanaredra's reign that Nannayya Bhattu translated the Mahabharata in to Telugu. Kakatiyas: They ruled this region up to earyl 14th century with Orugallu as their capital. Reddy dynasty: On the downfall of Pratapa Rudra of Kakatiya, the eldest son of Pulaya Vema Reddi found himself independent and established himself in the hill fort of Kondavedu. He also possessed himself of the fortress of Bellamkonda, Vinukonda and Nagarjuna konda in the Palanad. The Kondavidu Reddi’s were great patrons of Telugu literature. The poet Srinadha and his brother-in –law Bammera Pothana flourished at his court. The ruins of fortresses at Kondavidu, Ballamkonda and Kondapalli are still to be seen. Gajapathisof Orissa: Kapileswara Gajapathi is preserved by the village Kapileswarapuram now in Pamidimukkala mandal. He was succeeded by Vidyadhara Gajapathi who built Vidyadharapuram (now in Vijayawada) and constructed a reservoir at Kondapalli. Vijayanagara empire: Krishna devaraya of Vijayanagarconquered this region in early 16th century. Qutb Shahis: In 1512, the Kingdom of Golcondaor Hyderabad was founded by one Sultan Quli Qutub Shah. The Kingdom of Golconda included this district within its limits. Abu-l-Hussain Shah was the last of Qutab Shahi dynasty known as Tanisha. He had two ministers, both Brahmins, named Akkanna and Madanna. For some reasons they fixed their office at Vijayawada. Popular tradition attributed this preference of Vijayawada to the devotion of the two ministers to the goddess Kanaka Durga. Nizams: The Emperor Aurangazebincluded this district in the province of Golconda, which remained under Asaf jah who was appointed as Subedar or Viceroy of the Deccan in 1713 with the tittle of Nizam-ul-Mulk. The province of Golconda comprised five Nawabs’ charges viz. Arcot, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Rajahmundry and Chicacole (Srikakulam). The Nawab of Rajahmundry ruled the country induced in the Krishna District.
The English: In the year 1611 the English founded their settlement at Masulipatnam which was their headquarters until they finally moved to Madras in 1641. The Dutch and French also had settlements at Masulipatnam. Upon the death of the old Nizam-ul-Mulk in June 1748 his heirs strove for the succession with the support of the English and the French. When Nizam Ali Khan was proclaimed ruler of Golconda in 1761 the British secured at first the divisions of Masulipatnam, Nizampatnam and part of Kondaveedu and later the entire Circars. At first the district was administered by a chief and council at Masulipatnam but in 1794 Collectors, directly responsible to the Board of Revenue, were appointed at Masulipatnam.
Krishna District with its District Headquarters at
Machilipatnamwas formerly called as Machlipatnam District. Later it was renamed as Krishna District after the holy river Krishna, by adding certain Taluks of the abolished Guntur District in 1859. Guntur district was separated from Krishna in 1904. Again in 1925 Krishna Districtwas further divided into Krishna and West GodavariDistricts. There were no significant further changes in its jurisdiction except some minor changes (in Divi Taluk and Munagala paragana).
Historic places in the district include:
*Gandhi Hill Religiously significant places include:
Kanaka Durga Temple
*Gunadala Matha Shrine
* Mopidevi Temple
The district is divided into upland and coastal area.
Kolleru Lake, one of India's most ecologically significant wetlands, lies partly within the district.
The main hill range of the district known as Kondapalli runs between Nandigama and Vijayawada with a length of about 24 km. The other impart hills are Jammalavoidurgam, Mogalrajapuram and Indrakiladri hills. On the Indrakiladri hills at Vijayawada stands the famous temple of Kanakadurga.
The chief rivers of the district are the Krishna (length 1,280 km), Muniyeru (Muneru), the Tammileru and Budameru. Krishna river debouches in to the Bay of Bengal at Hamsala Divi and Nachugunta in this district. The district contains small hillstreams viz., Jayanthi, Kattaleru, Ippalavagu, Upputeru, Telleru, Ballaleru, Nadimeyeru.
The district has no worth mentioning forests. The forest occupies only 9% of the total district area. However, it contains Reserved Forest areas in Nandigama, Vijayawada, Tiruvuru, Nuzvid, Gannavaram, Bandar and Divi taluks. A type of lightwood known as ‘Ponuku’ (Gyrocapus Jacquini) is found on the Kondapalli hills. The wood is used for the manufacture of the well known Kondpalli toys. The most noticeable trees are pterocarpus, Terminalia, Anogeissus and Logustroeinai and Casuarina.
Panthers, Hyaena, Jungle cat, fox and bear and other carnivorous mammalian fauna are found here. Deer, spotted deer sambar and blackbuck and other herbivorous animal’s are found in the interior inland forests. A migrant gray billed pelican is a protected bird in the Kollair lake boarding the Krishna district. The district possesses a large number of Murrah buffaloes and cows with Murrah stain.
The climatic conditions of the district are of extreme kind with hot summers and cold winters and may be classified as tropical. The period starting from April to June is the hottest. The annual rainfall in the region is about 1028 mm and is contributed by the Southwest monsoon.
Three types of soils viz., Black Cotton (57.6%), Sand clay loams (22.3%) and Red loams (19.4%).
Natural Gas and Crude Oil is found extensively offshore and on the coastal belt of the districtSmall deposits of Diamonds are available.Limestone is a major mineral extracted in the district.Sand quarrying for construction is extracted from krishna and munneru rivers.
* Chromite: Kondapalli hills and adjoining areas
* Diamonds: Paritala, Ustepalls, Kondavatikallu, Ramannapet, Suryavaram, Kothapet, Nemalipuram, Mugaluru, Putrela etc.
* Iron Ore: Jaggayyapet area
* Lime Stone: Jaggayyapet area
* Mica: Tiruvuru area
* Salphur: Kona in Machilipatnam Mandal.
The District is divided into four revenue divisions namely Vijayawada, Nuzvid, Machilipatnam, Gudivada revenue divisions each headed by a sub collector.
There are a total of 50 mandals in Krishna District
Major Cities and Towns:
The Majority of the people in Urban areas of Krishna district are engaged in trade and commerce. Agriculture is the most important occupation of the people of the district.
The District hosts many industries. KCP Sugar Factory at Vuyyur is one of the largest sugar plants in India. Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS) near Ibrahimpatnam is ranked as the No.1 Power generation unit in India for its high performance. Apart from this, many medium Scale Cement factories are there throughout the district. There are many small scale industries like musical instruments at Jaggayyapeta, Rold gold ornaments at Machilipatnam and Kondapalli toys. SIRIS Pharmaceutical Company at Vijayawada is another giant company manufacturing Allopathic medicines. The oldest port in Andhra Pradesh is at Machilipatnam.
Krishna district has two parliamentary constituencies
Vijayawadaand Machilipatnam. In Andhra pradesh assembly Krishna district has 17 constituencies namely Tiruvuru(SC), Nandigama, Mylavaram, Jaggayyapeta, Vijayawada(West), Vijayawada(East), Kankipadu, Nuzvid, Gannavaram, Vuyyuru, Gudivada, Pedana, Mudinepalli, Machilipatnam, Avanigadda, Malleswaram, Nidumolu(SC). Telugu Desamand Congress(I)are the main parties in the district.
* The Bus complex (PNBS-Pandit Nehru Bus Station) at Vijayawada is one of the biggest in Asia.
* The Railway station at Vijayawada is the 2nd Busiest Junction in India. More than 164 trains pass by/originate/terminate at this railway station.
* Airport is located at Gannavaram which is 16 km north east of Vijayawada connecting the city to Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Rajahmundry.
* A new deep water port is under construction in machilipatnam.
Four national highways pass through the district
* NH-5 chennai to kolkata
* NH-9 pune to machilipatnam
* NH-221 vijayawada to jagdalpur
* NH-214 kathipudi to ongole
Krishna district has a population of 4,187,841 of which 32.08% is urban .Population density is 479 persons/sq.km while decadal population growth rate is 14.05%. 70.03% of people in district are literates. [ [http://www.krishnadistrict.com/html/district-profile.htm Krishna District ] ]
Telugu is considered to be the standard dialect [http://www.aponline.gov.in/Quick%20links/HIST-CULT/languages.html] .
Kuchipudidance form has originated from this district.
It is the birth place of significant personalities in this part of the world, including:
Pingali Venkaiahdesigner of Indian National Flag
Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao(N T R)
Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao
Akkineni Nageswara Rao( A N R)
*Ayyadevara Kaleswara Rao
*K. L. Rao
*Duggirala Gopala Krishna
*Ramoji Rao Cherukuri
*Jayaprakash Narayana, Convenor Lok Satta
Vijayawada is one of the main education centers in Andhra pradesh .
NTR University of Health Sciencesis located in Vijayawada. International Institute of Information Technology is present in Nuzvid. South Indian branch of School of architecture and planning is present in Vijayawada.
It boasts Headquarters of numerous residential colleges and schools like Sri Chaitanya, Nalanda, Sri Krishnaveni which are among the biggest/largest of the Corporate Educational Institutes in India.
District has numerous engineering colleges including Velagapudi Ramakrishna Siddhartha Engineering College, KLCE. Mary Stella college, Sidhartha Degree College are few of the many famous arts and science colleges in the district.
Kabaddi is the most popular sport followed by Cricket, Volleyball and Tennis. Indira Gandhi Stadium in Vijayawada hosts One Day Internationals Cricket matches of India.
* [http://www.krishna.gov.in The official Web Portal of Krishna District]
* [http://www.krishnadistrict.com Krishna district]
* [http://www.zpkrishna.com Krishna Zilla Parishad]
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