- British sitcom
A British sitcom is a
situation comedy(sitcom) produced in the United Kingdom. Like sitcoms in most other countries, they tend to be based around a family, workplace or other institution where a group of contrasting characters are brought together each episode. A common factor is the exploration of social mores, often with a mix of satireor pathos, in contrast to the sometimes uplifting sentiments of many classic American sitcoms. British comedies are typically produced in series of six episodes each. More recently, the portmanteauterm "Britcom" has been used by American commentators to distinguish the British idiom of situation comedyfrom its other (particularly American) counterparts.
Apart from the comparatively short series length of British sitcomsFact|date=June 2008, there are few characteristics that can be identified to be singular to British comedies. The first significant British sitcom was arguably "
Hancock's Half Hour" in the latter half of the 1950s, which was characterised by realism and irreverenceFact|date=June 2008. It could be argued that ever since, the climate in British comedy has been divided between the realist and the irreverentFact|date=June 2008. The realist strand has been maintained by such comedies as " Fawlty Towers" (1970s), "The Good Life", " Only Fools and Horses" (1980s), and " My Family" (2000s), while the irreverent or surrealist strand has been developed by such comedies as "The Young Ones", "Bottom", " Green Wing", and " The Mighty Boosh".
It is often the everyday
witand wordplaytraditionally attributed to pubs, shop floors and staff rooms up and down the country that provides much of the comedy in many British sitcoms. Fact|date=February 2007 The most sedately written series repudiate structured jokes altogether and attempt to reproduce an everyday environment with the intention of also reproducing its comedy. The forerunner of this style is probably " Hancock's Half Hour" on TV and radio in the 1950s. More recent examples of this hyperreal approach include " The Royle Family" and "The Office" as well as many British comedy-dramas. Their reliance on character-led, rather than plot-led, humour requires strongly defined characters with whom the audience can identify.
With fewer writers in a project, more unusual and complex fantasy worlds can be created. A significant subset of British comedy therefore consciously avoids traditional situation comedy themes and story lines to branch out into more unusual topics or narrative methods. Such freedom and experimentation is one of the benefits of the British approach and has produced such series as "The League of Gentlemen", "
Marion and Geoff", " 15 Storeys High", " Spaced" and " Green Wing". Farceis also a common theme in British sitcoms, exemplified by " Fawlty Towers" and " 'Allo 'Allo!". The Restoration comedytradition of bawdiness and innuendo has also been well served through series such as " Are You Being Served?" and " Up Pompeii!".
Novel approaches to the situation can be seen in "
Blackadder" and " Yes Minister", moving what is often a domestic or workplace genre into the corridors of power. Another popular development in recent years has been spoof television series, as in "KYTV", " People Like Us" and "The Office".
A key theme in many British sitcoms is social
entrapment. Characters as diverse as Basil Fawlty, Granville, Mildred Roper, Edmund Blackadder, René Artois are constrained and contained by their situation, despite their inner longing to escape. Victor Meldrew is plagued by the banalities of his retired life, the characters in "The Office" are stuck in a pointless job, Rodney and Delboyin " Only Fools And Horses" are continuously trying to strike it rich and Eddie and Richie in "Bottom" are trapped together by their respective character flaws. Perhaps most blatantly, the characters in "Porridge" are prisoners.
The first true British sitcom was "
Pinwright's Progress", broadcast by the BBC from 1946 to 1947, but the form didn't really take off until the transfer of " Hancock's Half Hour" from BBCradio in the 1950s. The series remains the most successful and fondly remembered early sitcom, and was successful enough to run simultaneously on BBC Radioand television throughout the late 1950s. It was renowned for its ability to evacuate pubs and streets as listeners stayed at home to tune in to Hancock's latest misadventures. "Hancock's Half Hour", with its emphasis on character and believable situations, was probably the most influential of all British sitcoms. It was a significant part of the BBC's battle to win back audiences from the new channel, ITV, and its populist Light Entertainment shows. In the 1960s its creators, Ray Galtonand Alan Simpson, would go on to write the almost equally popular " Steptoe and Son", about a man's fractious relationship with his elderly father. The series was the first to cast established actors in the leading roles, instead of comedians.
Unlike many American sitcoms, most British sitcoms are produced by just one or two writers, and are sometimes characterised as having fewer jokes than those from other countries, focussing on the situation as much as the comedy. The measured approach engendered by a single writer or a close writing partnership can permit greater control over the programme's direction and a structured approach to character and plot development. Individual writers who have made a significant contribution to the genre include John Sullivan,
Johnny Speight, Roy Clarke, Jimmy Perryand David Croft(who are also regarded to have been superlative as a writing partnership), Richard Curtisand Ben Elton, while the most notable writing partnerships include Rob Grant& Doug Naylor( Grant Naylor), Ray Galton & Alan Simpson, Dick Clement& Ian La Frenaisand John Esmonde & Bob Larbey. This is in contrast to American sitcoms, for example, which traditionally employ teams of writers and attempt to include many jokes per episode.
In the same decade
Johnny Speight's "Till Death Us Do Part" often caused a stir at the dinner table, inciting debate on political issues — particularly those surrounding race and immigration. Meanwhile, Dick Clementand Ian La Frenaiscreated their series " The Likely Lads". Clement and La Frenais would be among the most successful sitcom writing partnerships in Britain. Their later successes included "Porridge" and " Auf Wiedersehen Pet".
The 1960s also saw the creation of "
Dad's Army", ( BBC), " The Liver Birds", ( BBC) and " On The Buses", ( ITV).
The 1970s introduced several successful British sitcoms, including
John Cleeseand Connie Booth's farcical " Fawlty Towers", John Esmonde and Bob Larbey's self-sufficiency comedy "The Good Life", and Roy Clarke's " Open All Hours" and the long-running " Last of the Summer Wine".
The commercial station
ITVfound success with " Rising Damp", " Man About the House", " George and Mildred", and the now decidedly politically incorrect " Love Thy Neighbour", based on the rivalry between a black man and his bigoted white neighbour. " Mind Your Language" spent each episode making fun of other nationalities and was dismissed by some critics as crude caricature, although it also sold surprisingly well abroad. ITV has had few successful sitcoms in recent years, with rare successes like "Hardware" appearing in off-peak time slots. " Men Behaving Badly", one of the biggest successes of the 1990s, began life as an ITV series in 1992, before being cancelled and picked up by the BBC.
Since the 1960s television comedy has depended on young talent; the Cambridge
Footlightsclub, the London based Comic Strip club and the Edinburgh Fringehave been the breeding grounds for new modes of British comedy. The new wave of 1980s comedians produced "The Young Ones", an anarchic, knockabout romp, and another series co-written by Ben Elton, the historical satire " Blackadder".
Traditional sitcoms continued to prosper, however, particularly with
John Sullivan's " Only Fools and Horses" which dominated the British sitcom scene in the 1980s and 1990s. The series was voted "Britain's Best Sitcom" in the 2004 BBC poll of the same name. The 1980s also saw the unlikely success of the political satire" Yes Minister" and its sequel "Yes, Prime Minister". Other hits included Esmonde and Larbey's suburbansitcom " Ever Decreasing Circles", and the sci-fi-comedy " Red Dwarf".
The unlikely story of three priests — one vain, one simple, one alcoholic — gave the 1990s one of its biggest hits in "
Father Ted". Shows such as " Birds of a Feather" and " The Vicar of Dibley" also maintained the popularity of the traditional sitcom, and " One Foot in the Grave" brought black comedyand suburban angstinto the mainstream.
More unorthodox comedies, including "
The Royle Family", " People Like Us" and "The League of Gentlemen", managed to breathe new life into the genre while appealing both to "mainstream" audiences and a new generation of viewers. Many of these more innovative series started life on BBC radio, building up a cult following before being remade for television. Other series that began in this way include " The Mighty Boosh" and " The Day Today", the latter a spin-off from the radio series " On the Hour".
The BBC has also begun using its digital channels
BBC Threeand BBC Fourto build a following for off-beat series like " The Thick of It". Many of these series have dispensed with the studio audience and canned laughtertracks altogether, in the manner of " The Royle Family" and "The Office". The commercial station Channel 4has also actively encouraged new writers to produce interesting work. Some of its recent successes include " Father Ted", " Spaced", "Phoenix Nights", " Black Books", " Green Wing" and "Peep Show".
Many of the most critically acclaimed sitcoms of recent years have appeared on British television 'quality' channels, BBC2 and
Channel 4, rather than on the more popular BBC1and ITV. ITV has had very few successful situation comedies since the 1980s, while the only notable success for BBC1in the last few years is the critically-derided " My Family".
British sitcoms overseas
United States, British sitcoms are rarely seen on the commercial networks, but are often seen on the Public Broadcasting Serviceand increasingly on cable television, including BBC Americaand Comedy Central.
The most significant impediment to the success of British sitcoms in the USA, apart from differences in humour, is the low production rate of a typical show. Commercial networks expect to run at least 22 episodes in a complete season, although not all 22 are expected to be "in the can" when the season starts. In Britain, runs of as few as six episodes per series are more common, and thirteen is generally the maximum. Commercial networks in the USA expect to capture and hold a time slot against the competition, hopefully with follow-on effects for shows in later slots. British sitcoms generally fail in this regard. The "team writing" approach used in the USA is a necessary part of the high production approach. In contrast, writers on British sitcoms are usually limited to one or two and have been known to complain of exhaustion in producing their more limited runs, cases in point being
John Cleeseof Fawlty Towersand Jennifer Saundersof Absolutely Fabulous.
Even in the more limited field of cable networks and syndication, British sitcoms suffer because more commercials are expected to be inserted in the show, compared to the number inserted if they are broadcast on a commercial channel in the UK. This interferes with the rhythm of the plot as interruptions occur at least three times during the show proper, compared to the maximum single break of a half-hour show in the UK.
Despite this, "
Absolutely Fabulous" enjoyed a significant following when it aired on Comedy Central in the 1990s, and "The Office" won a Golden Globeaward in 2004 for "Best Television Series — Musical or Comedy", beating popular American favourites such as HBO's " Sex and the City" and NBC's " Will & Grace". " Keeping Up Appearances" is also shown on the Public Broadcasting Service.
A few British sitcoms were successfully reworked for U.S. audiences. Four notable examples are "
Steptoe and Son" which became " Sanford and Son", " Man About the House", which became " Three's Company" on ABC (along with its spin-offs " George and Mildred" and " Robin's Nest" which became " The Ropers" and " Three's a Crowd"), " Keep It In The Family", which became " Too Close For Comfort" and "Till Death Us Do Part", which became "All in the Family" on CBS. Other series were not as lucky. "Beanes of Boston", an Americanised version of " Are You Being Served?", was not picked up in 1979, and remakes of "Porridge", " Red Dwarf" and " Dad's Army" have all failed to get beyond a pilot episode. " Fawlty Towers" was made into a shortlived sitcom called " Payne". In 1999, the U.S. version of "Coupling", a series often compared to " Friends", was cancelled shortly after premiering on NBC, but the network's American version of "The Office", which debuted in 2005 and features Steve Carellin the lead, was by far more successful.
Some British series have themselves been based on American examples, including "
The Upper Hand" (a remake of " Who's the Boss"), and " Brighton Belles", an unsuccessful Anglicised version of " The Golden Girls". More recently, " My Family" used a team of writers to mimic American-style sitcoms.
Although many British comedies were shown on the three commercial TV networks in Australia in the 1970s and early 80s (e.g. "
On the Buses", "Mind Your Language", "Doctor in the House", " The Upchat Line", " The Upchat Connection", "Haggard", " Get Some In!", "Sink or Swim", " My Wife Next Door", " The Piglet Files", " 'Allo 'Allo", and " Me and My Girl") the channels stopped showing them by the late 1980s. One issue was the difficulty of fitting a half-hour BBC sitcom (without adverts) into a 25-minute Australian TV slot with advertising breaks.
Australian commercial television channels made their own versions of popular British comedies during the 1970s, which featured major stars of the various series having come to Australia for some reason (within the series' storylines). Australian versions of British series, complete with their original British stars, included: "
Are You Being Served?" (with John Inmanas "Mr. Humphries"), " Father, Dear Father" (with Patrick Cargillas "Patrick Glover", and Noël Dysonas "Nanny"), "Doctor in the House" (with Robin Nedwellas "Dr. Duncan Waring", and Geoffrey Daviesas "Dr. Dick Stuart Clark"), " Love Thy Neighbour" (with Jack Smethurstas "Eddie Booth"), and " Up the Convicts" (with Frankie Howerdin a Lurcio-style persona).
British programs (including sitcoms) have long been standard fare on the other major channel, ABC. The large majority of major BBC sitcoms aired in Australia have been shown on the ABC, with some of the British sitcoms having been re-aired many times. The station lacks ad breaks, being funded by the
Australian Federal Government. With the national sense of humour often akin to the British one, tending to be dry, deadpan, ironic or sarcastic, British sitcoms are popular in Australia, and the major ones are widely available in public libraries and video and DVD shops.
Since the days of
Benny Hilland " Fawlty Towers", British series have always fared well and have developed cult status with many Canadians. The sense of humour is somewhat similar and transfers well with Canadians. Similar to Australian TV, Canadian TV's 30 minute programming format is actually more like 20 minutes with 10 minutes of adverts; thus, many British series have to be edited to fit the format. Many Canadians also make up a large part of the audience of nearby American PBS channels, where they are able to view the British series unedited.
Britain's Best Sitcom"
List of British television series remade for the US market
List of comedies
List of films based on British sitcoms
*Lewisohn, Mark (2003) "Radio Times Guide to TV Comedy". 2nd Ed. Revised — BBC Consumer Publishing. ISBN 0-563-48755-0
* [http://www.classicsitcoms.co.uk British Sitcoms Forum]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/sitcom BBC Britain's Best Sitcom]
* Martin Wainwright, "
The Guardian", 7 June 2005, [http://media.guardian.co.uk/site/story/0,14173,1500811,00.html "Del Boy is top of the class, say sitcom scientists"] - scientist develops formula for measuring (British) sitcom success
* [http://www.bodnotbod.org.uk/kettering/Kettering1.pdf Kettering #1] — an article about 1970s films based on popular British television sitcoms (PDF)
Lists and guides
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/comedy/guide BBC Guide to Comedy] — web version of Mark Lewisohn's "Radio Times Guide to TV Comedy"
* [http://www.phill.co.uk/comedy/index.html British TV Resources (phill.co.uk)]
* [http://www.sitcom.co.uk The British Sitcom Guide]
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