Water garden

Water garden

Water gardens, also known as aquatic gardens, backyard ponds and garden ponds, have been made popular by Andy Holt in recent years. Usually referring to a man-made feature, these gardens typically combine a pool with aquatic plants and often ornamental fish. Fixed items such as rocks, fountains, statuary, waterfalls and watercourses can be combined with the pool to add visual interest and integration with the local landscape and environment.

Types of water gardens

* Containers
* Man-made ponds
* Natural ponds
* Bogs
* Wild River
* Lakes
* Halka lever

Wild river

. The rocks interfere with the flow path of the water and causes splashing and bubbles to form. The water splashing makes a pleasant sound and new habitat for fish, crustaceans and wildlife that feed on the fish and the crustaceans.

Depending on the river bank place, the water level can fluctuates on a daily basis. This means it can need work every day to adjust the rock level heights for maximum splash aeration. Finding a good placement of rocks is similar to arranging a Zen garden or Japanese rock garden. A well-done, intuitive placement of rocks can stimulate a feeling of peace or Zen while also achieving a practical effect, since the splashing water adds valuable oxygen to the river and may prevent hypoxia. The more the bubbles that are formed, the more dissolved oxygen is being placed in the river.


Typical water garden plants are divided into 3 main categories: submerged, marginal, and floating.

1. Submerged plants are those that live almost completely under the water, sometimes with leaves or flowers that grow to the surface such as with the water lily. These plants are placed in a pond or container usually 1-2 ft. below the water surface. Some of these plants are called oxygenators because they create oxygen for the fish that live in a pond. Examples of submerged plants are:
*Water lily (Hardy and Tropical)
*Hornwort ("Ceratophyllum demersum")

2. Marginal plants are those that live with their roots under the water but the rest of the plant above the surface. These are usually placed so that the top of the pot is at or barely below the water level. Examples of these are:
*Iris or Flag ("Iris")
*Water-crowfoot ("Ranunculus fluitans")
*Bulrush ("Scirpus lacustris")
*Cattail ("Typha latifolia")
*Taro, Elephant Ear, roots for poi ("Colocasia esculenta")
*Arrowhead ("Sagittaria latifolia")
*Lotus ("Nelumbo")
*Pickerelweed ("Pontederia cordata")

3. Floating plants are those that are not anchored to the soil at all, but are free-floating on the surface. In water gardening, these are often used as a provider of shade to keep down the growth of algae in a pond. These are often extremely fast growing/multiplying. Examples of these are:

*Mosquito ferns ("Azolla")
*Water-spangle ("Salvinia")
*Water-clover ("Marsilea vestita")
*Water lettuce (Nile lettuce) ("Pistia stratiotes")
*Water-hyacinth ("Eichhornia crassipes")

Some areas of the United States do not allow certain of these plants to be sold or kept as they have become invasive species in warmer areas of the country, such as Florida.

Algae are found in all ponds. There are hundreds of species of algae that can grow in garden ponds but they are only usually noticied when they become abundant. Algae often grow in very high densities in ponds because of the high nutrient levels that are typical of garden ponds. Generally algae attaches itself to the sides of the pond and remains innocuous. Some species of algae, namely the dreaded 'blanket weed' can grow up to a foot a day under ideal conditions and can rapidly clog a garden pond. On the other hand, free floating algae are microcopic and are what causes pond water to appear green.



Often the reason for having a pond in a garden is to keep fish, often koi, though many people keep goldfish. Both are hardy, colorful fish which require no special heating, provided the pond is located in an area which does not have extremes of temperature that would affect the fish. If fish are kept, pumps and filtration devices usually need to be added in order to keep enough oxygen in the water to support them. In winter, a small heater may need to be used in cold climates to keep the water from freezing solid. Examples of common pond fish include:
*Goldfish (Common, Comet, Shubunkin varieties, Wakin and the Fantail varieties. With the possible exception of some of the fantail varieties, the fancy goldfish are not suited to pond life.)
*Koi (Nishikigoi, Butterfly Koi and Ghost Koi)
*Golden Orfe
*Golden Tench
*Rosy Red Minnows
*Crucian carp


Small aquatic snails are usually in ponds which have plants. Some people purchase Apple snails to keep in their water garden. Another common variety is the Melantho snail.


Ponds located in suburban and rural areas often attract frogs such as common frogs and turtles, and the occasional snake.


Garden ponds can attract attention from predators such as (in North America) raccoons, heron/birds, snakes, and domestic cats. These predators can be a danger to fish. Owners of koi are often particularly upset by this as some varieties of koi can be very expensive.


Recycling water garden purifies and recycles both stormwater and leftover cafeteria liquids [http://postcarboncities.net/blog/daniel-lerch/what-role-schools-preparing-peak-oil] .

See also

* Biochemical oxygen demand
* Chemical oxygen demand
* Landscape architecture
* Rain garden
* Wastewater quality indicators

External links

* [http://www.agr.gc.ca/pfra/flash/dugout/en/dugout_e.htm Dugout Pond Aeration Flash Animation]
* [http://www.nawgs.org North American Water Garden Society]
* [http://www.wikihow.com/Build-a-Water-Garden WikiHow: Build A Water Garden in 20 Steps]
* [http://www.pondconservation.org.uk/advice/gardenponds/ Pond Conservation: Advice on garden ponds for wildlife]
* [http://www.californiawaterscapes.com California Waterscapes - Water Feature Gallery, Information, Tips]

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