- Planned Parenthood
msize = 220px
mcaption = Operates in the USA
abbreviation = PPFA
formation = 1916
status = Federation
purpose = Reproductive Health
location = ~880 clinic locationscite web | url = http://www.plannedparenthood.org/about-us/who-we-are/planned-parenthood-glance-5552.htm | title = Planned Parenthood at a Glance | publisher = Planned Parenthood | accessdate = 2008-08-15]
membership = 99 independent Planned Parenthood affiliates
leader_title = President
parent organization =
budget = $1,017.9 millioncite web | url = http://www.plannedparenthood.org/files/AR_2007_vFinal.pdf | title = Planned Parenthood Federation of America 2006-2007 Annual Report | publisher = Planned Parenthood | year = 2008 | accessdate = 2008-06-03|format=PDF]
website = [http://www.plannedparenthood.org/ Planned Parenthood]
Planned Parenthood is the collective name of organizations worldwide who are members of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) is the U.S. affiliate of IPPF and one of its larger members. PPFA provides
reproductive healthand maternal and child health services. Planned Parenthood Action Fund, Inc. (PPAF) is a related organization that lobbies the U.S. political system for pro-choicelegislation, comprehensive sex education, and access to affordable health care. [cite web |url=http://www.ppaction.org/ppvotes/08_issues.html |title=Planned Parenthood Action Fund's core issues |accessdate=2008-04-08 |author= |date= |work= |publisher=Planned Parenthood Action Fund]
The organization has its roots in
Brooklyn, New Yorkwhere Margaret Sangeropened the country's first birth control clinic. Sanger incorporated the American Birth Control Leaguein 1923, which changed its name to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. in 1942. Since then, it has grown to about 880 clinic locations in the United States, with a total budget of approximately US$1 billion, and provides an array of services to over three million people.
Dealing with sexuality, the organization is often the centre of controversy in the United States. The organization's status as the country's leading provider of surgical
abortions has put it in the forefront of national debate over the issue. Planned Parenthood has also been a party in numerous Supreme Court cases.
Facilities and funding
PPFA is a federation of 99 independent Planned Parenthood affiliates around the United States. These affiliates together operate more than 880 locations, offering a variety of services to more than three million people. Services include
abortionservices, contraceptive ( birth control) services; emergency contraception; screening for breast, cervical and testicular cancers; pregnancy testing and pregnancy options counseling; testing and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases; sexuality education, menopausetreatments; vasectomies and tubal ligations, and more. Not all services are available at all locations.
Planned Parenthood describes itself as "the nation's leading sexual and reproductive health care advocate and provider." In 2006, Planned Parenthood provided 289,750 surgical and medical abortions, about 3% of its total services. They referred 2,410 adoption cases that same year.
Planned Parenthood receives almost a third of its money in government grants and contracts ($336.7 million in FY 2007). In the 2006–07 Annual Report, clinic income totaled $356.9 million and miscellaneous operating revenues $65.5 million. Planned Parenthood is also heavily sponsored by private individuals, with over 900,000 active individual contributors. Large donors such as the
Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Foundations, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundationcontribute a substantial part of the organization's budget.cite web | url = http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=50815
title = Buffet gift means millions for abortion| publisher = Worldnet Daily | year = 2006 | accessdate = 2006-06-28|format=html]
pro-lifeorganizations that disagree with Planned Parenthood's mission and services have set up campaigns and petitions to stop Planned Parenthood from receiving government funding. [cite news
title=ALL Launches Full-Scale National Campaign to Stop Planned Parenthood Tax Funding
January 23, 2006] They have often also asked for boycotts of private donors to Planned Parenthood, though there has been no notable success in this regard.
History and organization
Planned Parenthood traces its origins to 1916 when
Margaret Sangeropened the first American birth control clinic in Brooklyn, New York. The organization began as the American Birth Control Leagueand was incorporated in 1923. The League was influential in liberalizing laws against birth control throughout the 1920s and 1930s before changing its name to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. in 1942. Faye Wattletonwas president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America from 1978 to 1992, the longest term in the organization's history since Sanger. During her term in office, the organization considerably expanded its services and became publicly visible in working for women's reproductive rights.
February 15, 2006, Cecile Richardsbecame president of the organization. [cite news
first=Darragh | last=Johnson | pages=C01
title=Cecile Richards, Planned Parenthood's Choice Leader
March 25, 2006| publisher=Washington Post
tand on political and legal issues
Planned Parenthood and its predecessor organizations have provided and advocated for access to birth control. The modern organization of Planned Parenthood America is also an advocate for
reproductive rights, including the right to abortion. This advocacy includes contributing to sponsorship of abortion rights and women's rights events [Planned Parenthood was one of the co-sponsors of the March for Women's Livesheld April 25, 2004.] and assisting in the testing of new contraceptives. [Planned Parenthood has been engaged in large scale tracking of the effectiveness and safety of mifepristonewithin its clinics. cite web
year = 2004
url = http://www.plannedparenthoodrx.com/annualreport/report-04.pdf
title = PPFA 2003–2004 Annual Report
format = PDF
publisher = Planned Parenthood Federation of America
accessmonthday = January 29
accessyear = 2006] The group opposes restrictions on abortion, including:
* laws requiring parental consent or notification for girls under the age of 18 (or 17 in some states) to have an abortion
*laws requiring an ultrasound before abortion (many Planned Parenthood clinics perform, but do not "require", ultrasounds)
*laws requiring a waiting period (ranging from a couple of hours to a day or more)
Planned Parenthood argues for the wide availability of
emergency contraception(EC) measures, [ [http://www.plannedparenthood.org/pp2/portal/files/portal/medicalinfo/ec/fact-emergency-contraception.xml Emergency Contraception] - Planned Parenthood] and opposes refusal clauses (also called conscience clauses) which would allow pharmacists to refuse to dispense contraceptives if doing so would conflict with their personal beliefs. [ [http://www.plannedparenthood.org/pp2/portal/files/portal/medicalinfo/birthcontrol/fact-041217-refusal-reproductive.xml Refusal Clauses: A Threat to Reproductive Rights] - Planned Parenthood] Planned Parenthood has also been critical of hospitals that they claim obstruct access to EC for rapevictims. [ [http://www.plannedparenthood.org/pp2/portal/files/portal/medicalinfo/ec/fact-032102-obstructing.xml Obstructing Access to Emergency Contraception in Hospital Emergency Rooms] - Planned Parenthood] Planned Parenthood supports and provides FDA-approved abortifacients such as mifepristone.
Planned Parenthood also opposes abstinence-only education in public schools. Instead, Planned Parenthood favors (and offers) comprehensive sex education, which includes discussion of both abstinence and birth control.
Controversy and criticism
Planned Parenthood has been accused by pro-life organizations of agreeing not to report cases of
statutory rapeto the authorities; for example, a pro-life activist, posing as a 13-year-old impregnated by her 22-year-old boyfriend, called over 800 clinics requesting an abortion. According to the recorded audio and transcripts, over 90% of the clinics agreed to her request not to report the boyfriend to the police for statutory rape. [cite news
title = Pro-Life Group Launches Undercover Sting
url = http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,54079,00.html
publisher = Fox News
date = 2002-05-31
accessdate = 2007-03-12]
Planned Parenthood has received criticism for withholding court-subpoenaed medical records of patients in these and other cases, but defends its actions on the grounds of
medical privacy. Cases in Indiana and Kansas remain unresolved. [cite news
title = Kansas AG Kline Says Request For Late-Term Abortion Records Motivated By Protecting Children; Opponent Says It Violated Medical Privacy
url = http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=50913
publisher = Medical News Today
date = 2006-09-04
accessdate = 2006-09-10] [cite news
title = Indiana Planned Parenthood Asks Court To Prevent State AG From Accessing Medical Records of Teens Seen at State Clinics
url = http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=21387
publisher = Medical News Today
date = 2005-03-17
accessdate = 2006-09-10] In October 2005, Planned Parenthood Minnesota/North Dakota/South Dakota was fined $50,000 for violation of a Minnesota state
parental notificationlaw. [cite news | last = Prather | title = Judge Faults St. Paul Clinic in Abortion Lawsuit | publisher = St. Paul Pioneer Press | date = 2005-10-13 | accessdate = 2006-09-10 | page = A1]
In 2007 Planned Parenthood in various states was subjected to a series of phone calls by students on the staff of a
University of California, Los Angelesstudent-run magazine, "The Advocate", run by a student pro-life organization. The calls included one in July 2007 to Planned Parenthood of Idaho offering a donation if it could be earmarked for abortions for black women because, "the less black kids out there the better." Answering the phone call, the organization's vice president of development and marketing said, "Understandable, understandable" and continued, "Excuse my hesitation, this is the first time I've had a donor call and make this kind of request, so I'm excited and want to make sure I don't leave anything out." Planned Parenthood of Idaho's CEO later issued a statement saying that the officer "violated the organization's principles and practices" and was suspended. [cite news | last = Forester | first = Sandra | title = Response to caller 'a serious mistake,' says Planned Parenthood of Idaho | work = Idaho Statesman| publisher = The McClatchy Company| date = 2008-02-28 | url = http://www.idahostatesman.com/newsupdates/story/308723.html | accessdate = 2008-03-16 ] The editor of "The Advocate" stated that Planned Parenthood of Idaho and the six other states were selected, in part, for having laws that allow single party approval of taped telephone conversations. [cite news | last = Boise Weekly Staff | title = Say What? | work = Boise Weekly| date = 2008-03-05 | url = http://www.boiseweekly.com/gyrobase/Content?oid=oid%3A311720 | accessdate = 2008-03-16] [cite news | last = Linares | first = Edgar | title = Group protests Planned Parenthood | work = KTVB TV | publisher = NBC Affiliate | date = 2008-03-01 | url = http://www.ktvb.com/news/localnews/stories/ktvbn-mar0108-planned_parenthood_rally.12209cf5.html | accessdate = 2008-03-16 ]
Planned Parenthood and the U.S. Supreme Court
Planned Parenthood regional chapters have been active in the American courts. A number of cases in which Planned Parenthood has been a party have reached the
Supreme Court of the United States.
Notable among these cases is the 1992 case "
Planned Parenthood v. Casey", where Planned Parenthood is the Southeast Pennsylvania Chapter, and Casey is the late Robert Casey, who was a pro-life Democratic Governor of Pennsylvania.
The ultimate ruling was a split plurality, in which "
Roe v. Wade" was upheld in an opinion written by Justices Anthony Kennedy, Sandra Day O'Connor, and David Souter, all of whom were Republican appointees to the Supreme Court, with Justices Harry Blackmunand John Paul Stevens(also Republican appointees) concurring with the main decision in separately written opinions. The Supreme Court also struck down spousal consent requirements for married women to obtain abortions.
Dissenting were Justices
William Rehnquist, Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas, and Byron White, all of whom were Republican appointees except for Justice White. Justices Blackmun, Rehnquist, and White were the only justices who voted on the original "Roe v. Wade" decision in 1973 who were still on the High Court to rule on this case, and their votes on this case were consistent with their votes on the original decision that legalized abortion [ [http://straylight.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0505_0833_ZS.html Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey ] ] .
Other notable cases
* July 1976: "Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth". This was a constitutionality challenge by Planned Parenthood to a Missouri law encompassing parental consent, spousal consent, clinic bookkeeping and allowed abortion methods. Portions of the challenged law were held to be constitutional, others not. [http://straylight.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0428_0052_ZS.html Syllabus, Opinion, one Concurrence, and two Concurrence & Dissent statements]
* 1983: "Planned Parenthood Association of Kansas City v. Ashcroft". This was a constitutionality challenge by Planned Parenthood to a Missouri law encompassing parental consent, clinic record keeping, and hospitalization requirements. Most of the challenged law was held to be constitutional. PMID 12041276.
* 2001: "Planned Parenthood v. ACLA." The American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA) released a flier and “Wanted” posters with complete personal information about doctors who performed abortions. Through the release of the information, the ACLA promoted controversy and called people to action. A civil jury and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals both found that the material was indeed "true threats" and not protected speech.
* January 2006: "Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England". [http://www.supremecourtus.gov/oral_arguments/argument_calendars/monthlyargumentcaldecember2005.pdf docket link] This relates to a constitutionality challenge by Planned Parenthood "et al." of a 2003
New Hampshireparental notification law related to access to abortion. [http://www.supremecourtus.gov/qp/04-01144qp.pdf Questions before the Court] [http://www.ca1.uscourts.gov/pdf.opinions/04-1161-01A.pdf Opinion of the US First Circuit Court of Appeals leading to the Questions before the Court] In Sandra Day O'Connor's final decision before retirement, the Supreme Court sent the case back to lower courts with instructions to seek a remedy short of wholesale invalidation of the statute.
* [http://www.plannedparenthood.org/ Planned Parenthood Federation of America]
* [http://www.teenwire.com/ Teenwire] (Planned Parenthood's sex education site for teens)
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