- Homosexual transsexual
Homosexual transsexual is a controversial term used by some psychologists and sexologists to describe male-to-female
transsexualwomen who are exclusively or predominantly attracted to males.citation
last2 = Latty
first2 = Elizabeth M
title=Measurement of sexual arousal in postoperative male-to-female transsexuals using vaginal photoplethysmography.
journal=Archives of Sexual Behavior
id=1573-2800 ] citation
last2 = Berger
first2 = Jack C.
title=Clinical patterns among male transsexual candidates with erotic interest in males
journal=Archives of Sexual Behavior
id=1573-2800 ] [Goozen, S. H., Slabbekoorn, D., Gooren, L. J., Sanders, G., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2002). Organizing and activating effects of sex hormones in homosexual transsexuals. "Behavioral Neuroscience, 116," 982-988.] It is less frequently used by proponents to describe female-to-male transsexual men who are exclusively attracted to
females.Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2000). Sexual orientation of female-to-male transsexuals: A comparison of homosexual and non-homosexual types. " Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29," 259-278.]
Proponents of the term define this category based on testing or self-report, noting that self-report is not always reliable.cite journal
coauthors=Leonard H. Clemmensen, Betty W. Steiner
title=Social desirability response set and systematic distortion in the self-report of adult male gender patients
journal=Archives of Sexual Behavior
accessdate=] Previous taxonomies used the terms "classic transsexual" or "true transsexual," terms once used in differential diagnoses.cite web|author=Benjamin H|date=1966|url=http://www.symposion.com/ijt/benjamin/chap_04.htm#Three%20different%20types%20of%20transsexuals|title="Three different types of transsexual" "The Transsexual Phenomenon."|publisher=Julian Press ASIN B0007HXA76] Proponents have stated that many "non-homosexual" transsexuals systematically distort their life stories because "non-homosexuals" were often screened out as candidates for surgeryMorgan AJ Jr (
1978). Psychotherapy for transsexual candidates screened out of surgery. " Archives of Sexual Behavior". 7: 273-282.] and because some see "homosexual transsexual" as a more socially desirable diagnosis. Key characteristics include conspicuous cross-gender behavior from childhood through adulthood, and a " homosexual" sexual orientation. The term is also part of a two-type taxonomyin which non-homosexual transsexual women have a condition called autogynephiliaand are aroused by the idea or image of themselves as women.
Leavitt, who has used the term in a paper notes,"Transsexuals, as a group, vehemently oppose the label and its pejorative baggage." Critics claim the term "homosexual transsexual" is "heterosexist,"Bagemihl B. Surrogate phonology and transsexual faggotry: A linguistic analogy for uncoupling sexual orientation from gender identity. In "Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality". Anna Livia, Kira Hall (eds.) pp. 380 ff. Oxford University Press ISBN 0195104714] "archaic,"Wahng SJ (2004). Double Cross: Transamasculinity Asian American Gendering in "Trappings of Transhood". in Aldama AJ (ed.) "Violence and the Body: Race, Gender, and the State". Indiana University Press. ISBN 025334171X] and demeaning because it labels people by sex assigned at birth instead of their
gender identity."cf." Leiblum SR, Rosen RC (2000). "Principles and Practice of Sex Therapy", Third Edition. ISBN 1-57230-574-6]
History of the term
Richard Green states that since the term "transsexual" is very new, it is necessary to examine historical specifics to identify transsexuality in history, and distinguish it from other roles that are described as "change of sex", such as homosexuality and heterosexual
cross-dressingcustoms.cite web|author=Green R|date=1966|url=http://www.symposion.com/ijt/benjamin/appendix_c.htm|title=Transsexualism: Mythological, Historical, and Cross-Cultural Aspects|publisher=Benjamin H, "The Transsexual Phenomenon." Julian Press ASIN B0007HXA76] Green describes the cultural roles of groups such as the Two-Spirit, Hijra, Kathoeyand Khanith, stating that these people are mentally indistinguishable from modern western transsexuals. In part, because of this history, past researchers have referred to the "homosexual" category as being the "classic", "primary" or "true" transsexual. At one time due to the heteronormative bias of many psychologists, transsexual people who did not fit into this category were often screened from receiving hormones and sex reassignment surgery.
Description by western science
The concept of a taxonomy based on transsexual sexuality was first proposed by
Magnus Hirschfeldin 1923,Hirschfeld M (1923). Die intersexuelle Konstitution. "Jarhbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen". 1923: 3-27] and codified by Harry Benjaminin the Benjamin Scale.Benjamin H (1966). " [http://www.symposion.com/ijt/benjamin/ The Transsexual Phenomenon.] " The Julian Press ASIN: B0007HXA76] Kurt Freundproposed two types of cross-gender identity, based on his observation that gender identity disorderis different for homosexual males and heterosexual males.Freund K, Steiner BW, Chan S (1982). Two types of cross-gender identity. " Archives of Sexual Behavior," 1982 Feb;11(1):49-63.] Published reports measure a "homosexual transsexual" at a Kinsey Scale 5-6 or a Modified Androphilia Scale 9.86±2.37. Ray Blanchardsaw that homosexual transsexuals were younger when applying for sex reassignment, reported a stronger cross-gender identity in childhood, had a more convincing cross-gender appearance, and functioned psychologically better than "non-homosexual" transsexuals.Blanchard R, Clemmensen LH, Steiner BW (1987). Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria. " Archives of Sexual Behavior", Volume 16, Number 2 / April, 1987] Blanchard found them comparatively short and light in proportion to their height than non-homosexuals.Blanchard R, Dickey R, Jones CL. Comparison of height and weight in homosexual versus non-homosexual male gender dysphorics. " Archives of Sexual Behavior" 1995 Oct;24(5):543-54.] Independent research done by Smith confirmed most of Blanchards findings, except for the difference in height-weight ratio.cite journal
coauthors=Stephanie Van Goozen, Aj Kupier, Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis
title=Transsexual subtypes: Clinical and theoretical significance
accessdate=2007-06-26] Dorner found that when injected with
Premarinhomosexual transsexual men showed an increased luteinizing hormoneand follicle stimulating hormoneresponse compared to heterosexual or bisexual transsexual men.Dorner G, Rohde W, Schott G, Schnabl C (1983). On the LH response to oestrogen and LH-RH in transsexual men. "Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology". 1983 Nov;82(3):257-67.]
Leavitt and Berger further categorized homosexual transsexuals by three patterns of sexual activity, and how they used their penis.
*Inactive group (44%): sexually inactive.
*Avoidant group (19%): Avoided using their male genitalia during sex.
*Pleasure group (37%): Derived pleasure from using their male gentalia during sex.Each group showed varying levels of masculinity and emotional disturbance in development.
Leavitt and Berger found that transsexuals in the avoidant group are different from those in the other two groups. They fit the description of the "nuclear transsexual". They had a strong cross gender identification, wanted female anatomy, had never married and little to no sexual activity with females. Of all the subgroups this group had the least psychopathology. The transsexuals is the pleasure group behaved sexually in ways that were classically homosexual. They were more likely than those in the avoidant group to have had sexual experience with females. They also rated higher on a test of general fetishism. Other than this transsexuals in the pleasure group were similar to the description of a "nuclear transsexual". They found that transsexuals in the inactive group had characteristics which most differed from that of the "nuclear transsexual". Characteristics such as strong heterosexual orientations (as determined from psychological test), and fetish histories. "The pattern exhibited generally conforms to that exhibited by heterosexual transsexuals." This group was found to share little with the other groups of transsexuals other than a stated sexual interest in males. Leavitt and Berger also mentioned studies by Blanchard which suggest that heterosexual transsexuals will adjust their life stories to ensure that they get sex reassignment surgery.
The Man Who Would Be Queen", J. Michael Baileysaw that the homosexual transsexuals he described were comfortable with prostitution,cite web|author=Bailey JM|date=2003|url=http://www.barkingduck.net/ehayes/essays/transsexualism.html|title=The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism|work=Women Who Once Were Boys Joseph Henry Press, ISBN 0-309-08418-0] and that they had a masculine sexual appetite and simply lusted after men. In " The Transsexual Phenomenon", Harry Benjamin, wrote that "Other transsexuals find prostitution a useful profession for emotional as well as practical reasons..."Benjamin, H. (1966). "The transsexual phenomenon." New York: Julian Press, pp. 50-51.] Benjamin goes on to note "How much more can his femininity be reaffirmed than by again and again attracting normal, heterosexual, and unsuspecting men and even being paid for rendering sex service as a woman?"
Frequency of Autogynephilia
Studies have variously found that between 10% and 36% of homosexual transsexuals report a history of sexual arousal to crossdressing. Bentler found 23%, while Freund reported 31%;Bentler P M (1976). A typology of transsexualism: Gender identity theory and data. "
Archives of Sexual Behavior" 5: 567-584.] Freund K, Steiner BW, Chan S (1982). Two types of cross-gender identity. " Archives of Sexual Behavior" 11: 49-63.] Leavitt and Berger reported 36% among all homosexual transsexuals, and 24% of the sexually active subjects; Blanchard found significantly lower numbers than his peers: 15% in his first study on the topic, and 10% in a paper two years later.Blanchard R (1985). Typology of male-to-female transsexualism. " Archives of Sexual Behavior", 14, 247-261.] Blanchard saw autogynephiliain lower levels when comparing homosexual and non-homosexual transsexuals, with levels of anatomic autogynephilia among some of the 117 androphilic subjects.Blanchard R (1989). The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria. " Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease", 177, 616-623.] A lower percentage of the homosexual transsexuals reported being (or having been) married and sexually aroused while cross-dressing.
Researchers have found several demographic features that homosexual transsexuals tend to have in common.cite journal|last=Cohen-Kettenis
coauthors=Owen A., Kaijser V., Bradley S. and Zucker K.
title=Gender-Dysphoric Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Analysis of Demographic Characteristics and Behavioral Problems.
journal=Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
accessdate=] cite journal
title=Transsexual prostitution in New Zealand: Predominance of persons of Maori extraction
journal=Archives of Sexual Behavior
accessdate=2008-02-26] Ken Zucker found that homosexual transsexuals are of lower
IQand social class, immigrant status, non-intact family, non- Caucasian race, and childhood behavior problems D.F. MacFarlanestudied transsexuals in Australia and New Zealand. MacFarlane found that in New Zealand that 90% of the homosexual transsexual prostitutes were Māori, an ethnic group who are only 9% of the overall population. In " The Man Who Would Be Queen" J. Michael Baileynotes that about 60% of homosexual transsexuals he studied in Chicago were Latinaor black; in his studies of gay males only 20% were non-white. He saw that most homosexual transsexuals learn to live on the streets, resorting to prostitution, or shoplifting. Bailey reported the opinions of two of his subjects who attributed the difference to genetics, or inflexible gender roles in their respective cultures. MacFarlane similarly concluded that culture influenced the number of Māori homosexual transsexuals he observed.
Classification of transsexuals
The Man Who Would Be Queen" by J. Michael Bailey ISBN 978-0309084185
* [http://www.autogynephilia.org/ColoredParisTalk_files/v3_document.htm "Autogynephilia and the Taxonomy of Gender Identity Disorders in Biological Males"] - Ray Blanchard, PhD 2000
* [http://www.autogynephilia.org/origins.htm "Origins of the Concept of Autogynephilia" - Ray Blanchard]
* [http://ai.eecs.umich.edu/people/conway/TS/LynnsReviewOfBaileysBook.html An investigation into the publication of J. Michael Bailey's book on transsexualism by the National Academies] - Lynn Conway
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