Pneumoencephalography

Pneumoencephalography

Pneumoencephalography (sometimes abbreviated PEG) is a medical procedure in which cerebrospinal fluid is drained to a small amount from around the brain and replaced with air, oxygen, or helium to allow the structure of the brain to show up more clearly on an X-ray picture. It is derived from ventriculography, an earlier and more primitive one where the air is injected through holes drilled in the skull.

The procedure was introduced in 1919 by the American neurosurgeon Walter Dandy.

Pneumoencephalography was performed extensively throughout the late 20th century, but it was extremely painful and, as researchers would later discover, very dangerous. The test was generally not well tolerated by patients. Headaches and severe vomiting were common side effects. Replacement of the spinal fluid was by natural generation and therefore recovery required as long as 2-3 months before full movement was restored. Modern imaging techniques such as MRI and Computed tomography [cite web|url=http://www.foresight.org/Conferences/MNT8/Papers/Flitman/|title=Survey of brain imaging techniques with implications for nanomedicine by Stephen S. Flitman, MD] have largely replaced Pneumoencephalography.

By the late 1980s the procedure was largely abandoned by the medical community, having been supplanted by the CT scan and metrizamide cisternography. Today, pneumoencephalography is limited to the research field and is used under rare circumstances. A related procedure is pneumomyelography, where gas is used similarly to investigate the spinal canal.

Pneumoencephalography appears in popular culture in the movie "The Exorcist" (1973), when Linda Blair's Regan McNeil character undergoes the procedure.

ee also

* History of neuroimaging
* Neuroimaging

References


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  • pneumoencephalography — /nooh moh en sef euh log reuh fee, nyooh /, n. Med. encephalography. [1930 35; PNEUMO + ENCEPHALOGRAPHY] * * * …   Universalium

  • pneumoencephalography — Radiographic visualization of cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces by use of gas such as air; no longer used because of CT and MRI. [G. pneuma, air, + enkephalos, brain, + grapho, to write] * * * pneu·mo·en·ceph·a·log·ra·phy in .sef ə läg… …   Medical dictionary

  • pneumoencephalography — n. act of making an X ray image of the brain after replacing cerebrospinal fluid with gas (Medicine) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • pneumoencephalography — pneu·mo·encephalography …   English syllables

  • pneumoencephalography — n. a technique used in the X ray diagnosis of disease within the skull. Air is introduced into the cavities (ventricles) of the brain to displace the cerebrospinal fluid, thus acting as a contrast medium. X ray photographs show the size and… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • pneumoencephalography — | ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷+ noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary pneum + encephalography : roentgenography of the brain after the injection of air into the ventricles …   Useful english dictionary

  • Пневмоэнцефалография (Pneumoencephalography) — метод рентгенологического исследования внутричерепных заболеваний. В полости (желудочки) мозга вводится воздух, который вытесняет из них спинномозговую жидкость и действует, таким образом, как контрастное вещество. На получаемых рентгенограммах… …   Медицинские термины

  • ПНЕВМОЭНЦЕФАЛОГРАФИЯ — (pneumoencephalography) метод рентгенологического исследования внутричерепных заболеваний. В полости (желудочки) мозга вводится воздух, который вытесняет из них спинномозговую жидкость и действует, таким образом, как контрастное вещество. На… …   Толковый словарь по медицине

  • Walter Dandy — Walter Edward Dandy, M.D. (April 6, 1886 – April 19, 1946) was an American neurosurgeon and scientist. He is considered one of the founding fathers of neurosurgery, along with Victor Horsley (1857 1916) and Harvey Cushing (1869 1939). Dandy is… …   Wikipedia

  • encephalography — Obsolete technique of radiographic representation of the brain. See pneumoencephalography. [encephalo + G. grapho, to write] gamma e. imaging of the encephalon by the administration of small amounts of gamma emitting radiopharmaceuticals; term… …   Medical dictionary

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