- Soviet Central Asia
Soviet Central Asia refers to the section of
Central Asiaformerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet control (1918-1991). In terms of area, it is nearly synonymous with Russian Turkestan, the name for the region during the Russian Empire. Soviet Central Asia went through many territorial divisions before the current borders were created in the 1920s and 1930s.
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
The beginning of the 18th century marked the zenith of the
Kazakh Khanate. During this period the Little Hordeparticipated in the 1723–1730 war against the Dzungars, following their " Great Disaster" invasion of Kazakh territories. Under the leadership of Abul Khair Khanthe Kazakhs won major victories over the Dzungarat the Bulanty River(1726) and at the Battle of Anrakayin 1729.In the nineteenth century, the Russian Empirebegan to expand, and spread into Central Asia.
The Anglo-Russian colonialist "
Great Game" period is generally regarded as running from approximately 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. Following the Bolshevik Revolutionof 1917 a second less intensive phase followed. The tsars effectively ruled over most of the territory belonging to what is now the Republic of Kazakhstan and Kirgystan. Russiaanexed Lake Issyk Kulin north east Kazakhstanof off Chinain the 1860s.
'Emerging from the Russian Empire following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War of 1918 – 1921, the USSR was a union of several Soviet republics, but the synecdoche Russia — after its largest and dominant constituent state — continued to be commonly used throughout the state's existence. "Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic"' (initially Turkestan Socialist Federative Republic) (
April 30, 1918– October 27, 1924) was created from the Turkestan Kraiof Imperial Russia. Its capital was Tashkent, population about 5,000,000.
British and Persian forces briefly tried to liberate
Bakuin Azerbaijanand the Turkmen port of Krasnovodsk. Bukhara, Khiva, Samarkand, Kokand, Dushanbeand the former Trans-Caspian provincewould see various anti-Bolshevik risings over the next few years.
In 1924 it was split into
Tajik ASSR(now Tajikistan), Turkmen SSR(now Turkmenistan), Uzbek SSR(now Uzbekistan), Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast(now Kyrgyzstan), and Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast(now Karakalpakstan).
Bukharan People's Soviet Republic
surrender the city to the Young Bukharans. As Russian sources report, the emir responded by murdering the Bolshevik delegation, along with several hundred Russian inhabitants of Bukhara and the surrounding territories. The majority of Bukharans did not support an invasion and the ill-equipped and ill-disciplined Bolshevik army fled back to the Soviet stronghold at Tashkent.
However, the emir had won only a temporary respite. As the civil war in Russia wound down, Moscow sent reinforcements to Central Asia. On
2 September 1920, an army of well-disciplined and well equipped Red Army troops under the command of Bolshevik general Mikhail Frunzeattacked the city. After four days of fighting, the emir's citadel (Arc) was destroyed, the Red flagwas raised from the top of Kalyan Minaret, and the Emir Alim Khan was forced to flee to his base at Dushanbein Eastern Bukharan, and finally to Kabul, Afghanistan.
A nearby anti-Bolshevik stronghold in the Tadjik/Moslem village of Khangir (qingir) declared its independence shortly afterwards, but soon surrendered after a 14 day siege by Russian and Bokhkori Bolsheviks. It was then quickly re-integrated back into Communist Bokhorah.
The Bukharan People's Republic was proclaimed on
8 October 1920under Faizullah Khojaev. The overthrow of the Emir was the impetus for the Basmachi Revolt, a conservative anti-communist rebellion. In 1922, most of the territory of the republic was controlled by Basmachi, surrounding the city of Bukhara. Joseph Stalinwould later purgeand exilemany of the local Bukhoripeople as well as most of the local Jewishcommunity from the former Bukharan People's Soviet Republic.
Prior to the establishment of the state of
Israel, the Bukharian Jewswere one of the most isolated Jewish communities in the world.
With the establishment of Soviet rule on the territory in 1917, Jewish life seriously deteriorated. Throughout 1920s and 1930s, thousands of Jews, fleeing
religious oppression, confiscation of property, summary arrests, and repressions, fled to Palestine.
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic and SSR
according to nationalities.
Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast
The Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast (Кара-Киргизская АО) was created on
14 October 1924within the Russian SFSR from the predominantly Kazakh and Kyrgyz parts of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On 15 May 1925it was renamed into the Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast. On 11 February 1926it was reorganized into the Kyrgyz ASSR. On 5 December 1936it became the Kyrgyz SSR, one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union.
Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast
The Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast was created on
February 19, 1925by separating lands of the ethnic Karakalpaksfrom the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republicand Khoresm People's Soviet Republic.
Initially located within the
Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the KarakalpakA.O. was transferred to the RSFSRfrom July 20, 1930to March 20, 1932, at which time it was elevated to the Karakalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The Karakalpak ASSR was joined to the Uzbek SSRon December 5, 1936.
Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
The Kazakh ASSR was an autonomous republic of the
Soviet Union. It became the Kazakh SSR on August 26, 1920.
Its original name was the
Kirgiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. This ASSR was established on 26 August 1920, and was a part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic(RSFSR)
In 1925 it was renamed the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1929 the city of
Almaty(Alma-Ata) was designated as the capital of the ASSR.
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
Kazakh SSREstablished on December 5, 1936. It was initially called Kyrgyz ASSR(Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) and was a part of the Russian SFSR. On April 15-19, 1925, it was renamed Kazakh ASSR and on December 5, 1936it became a Union Republic of the USSRcalled Kazakh SSR in the culminating act of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. During the 1950s and 1960s Soviet citizens were urged to settle in the " Virgin Lands" of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. The influx of immigrants (mostly Russiansand Ukrainians, but also some forcibly resettled ethnic minorities, such as the Volga Germansand the Chechens) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non- Kazakhsto outnumber natives.
In 1924, the borders of political units in Central Asia were changed along ethnic lines determined by
Lenin's Commissarfor Nationalities, Joseph Stalin. The Turkestan ASSR, the Bukharan People's Republic, and the Khorezm People's Republic were abolished and their territories were divided into eventually five separate Soviet Socialist Republics, one of which was the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. The next year the Uzbek SSR became one of the republics of the Soviet Union. Almatyis the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,226,000 (as of 1 August 2005). [ru icon [http://www.gazeta.kz/art.asp?aid=64678 С начала года население Алматы увеличилось на 1,4%] Gazeta.kz] The Ethnic groups in a 2003 census were: Kazakh 43.6%, Russian 40.2%, Uyghur 5.7%, Tatar 2.1%, Korean 1.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, German 0.7%.
Kyzil Orda /
Kyzylordawas founded in 1820 as a Kokand fortress of Ak-Mechet (also spelt Aq Masjid, Aq Mechet, 'white mosque'). The name comes from the Kazakh for 'Red center'. Uralsk/ Oral was founded in 1613 by Cossacks, was originally named Yaitsk, after the Yaik River. The city was put under siege during the Russian Civil War. It has a population of 210,600. It is the capital of the West Kazakhstan Province. Ethnic composition is dominated by Russians (54%), Kazakhs (34%), along with a few Ukrainians and Germans.
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Kyrgyz SSR, formally known as the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic (sometimes spelled Kirghiz), also known as Kirgizia, was one of fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union. Established on 14 October 1924as the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblastof the Russian SFSR, it was transformed into the Kyrgyz ASSR ( Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) on 1 February 1926, still being a part of the Russian SFSR. Today it is the independent state of Kyrgyzstanin Central Asia. Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kyrgyz ASSR) was the both the name of two different national entities within Russian SFSR, in the territories of modern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
5 December 1936it became a separate constituent republic of the USSR as the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic during the final stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. Bishkekwas both the capital and the largest city of Kyrgyzstan and the Kirghiz ASSR, with a population of approximately 900,000 in 2005. In 1862 Tsarist Russiadestroyed the local fort and began to settle the area with Russian migrants. Over the years many fertile black soil farms were developed by the Tzarists and, later, the process carried on by the USSR. In 1926, the city became the capital of the newly established Kirghiz ASSRand was renamed Frunze after the Bolshevik hero, Mikhail Frunze, who was one of Lenin's close associates, who was born in Bishkek until Kirghiz independence in 1991.
Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Tajik SSRwas one of the new states created in Central Asia in 1924 was Uzbekistan, which had the status of a Soviet socialist republic. In 1929 Tajikistanwas detached from Uzbekistanand given full status as a Soviet socialist republic. The city of Dushanbe would becom a important regional hub on the border with Afghanistan.
Tajikistan has 3
exclaves, all of them located in the Fergana Valley region where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet. The largest is Vorukh(with an area between 95 – 130 km²/37 – 50 sq mi, population estimated between 23,000 and 29,000, 95% Tajiks and 5% Kyrgyz, distributed among 17 villages), located 45 kilometres (28 miles) south of Isfaraon the right bank of the Karafshinriver, in Kyrgyz territory. Another exclave in Kyrgyzstan is a small settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagach. The last is the village of Sarvan, which includes a narrow, long strip of land (about 15 km (9 mi) long by 1 km (over ½ mi) wide) alongside the road from Angrento Kokand; it is surrounded by Uzbek territory. There are no foreign enclaves within Tajikistan.
In 1929 "
Dushanbe" was renamed "Stalinabad", after Joseph Stalin; as part of Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinizationinitiative, the city was renamed "Dushanbe" in 1961. The Sovietstransformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk production, and relocated tens of thousands of people to the city from around the Soviet Union. The population also increased with thousands of ethnic Tajiks migrating to Tajikistanfollowing the transfer of Bukhara and Samarkand to the Uzbek SSR. Dushanbelater became the home to a university and the Tajik Academy of Sciences. Severe Tadjik nationalist rioting occurred in 1990, rumor said that Moscowhad planned to relocate tens of thousands of Armenian refugees to Tajikistan. Dushanbe also had a relatively high military population during the war with Afghanistan.
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic was one of fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union. It was initially established on
August 7 1921as Turkmen Oblastof the Turkestan ASSR. On May 13 1925it was transformed into Turkmen SSR and became a separate republic of the Soviet Union. Today it is the independent state of Turkmenistanin Central Asia.
Communist Party of the Turkmen SSRwas the ruling communist party of the Turkmen SSR, and a part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. From 1985 it was led by Mr Saparmurat Niyazov, who in 1991 renamed the party to the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, which is no longer a communist party . The current Communist Partyof Turkmenistan is illegal. [ [http://www.broadleft.org/tm.htm Leftist Parties of Turkmenistan] Leftist Parties of the World] Ashgabathas a population of 695,300 (2001 census estimate) and has a primarily Turkmen population, with minorities of ethnic Russians, Armenians, and Azeris. It is 920 km from the second largest city in Iran, Mashhad. The principal industries are cottontextiles and metal working. Merv/ Maryis an ancient city with a Its population was 123,000 in 1999. It has interesting Regional Museum and lies near the remains of the ancient city of Merv, which in corrupted form gives its name to the modern town. Carpetsfrom the region of Merv are sometimes considered superior to the Persian ones.
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
In 1924 the new national boundaries separating the Uzbek and Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republics cut off the eastern end of the Fergana Valley, as well as the slopes surrounding it. This was compounded in 1928 when the
Tajik ASSRbecame a fully-fledged republic, the Tajik SSR, and the area around Khodjend was made a part of it. This blocked the valley's natural outlet and the routes to Samarkand and Bukhara, but none of these borders was of any great significance so long as Soviet rule lasted.
The Uzbek SSR included the Tajik ASSR until 1929, when the Tajik ASSR was upgraded to an equal status. In 1930, the Uzbek SSR capital was relocated from
Samarkandto Tashkent. In 1936, the Uzbek SSR was enlarged with the addition of the Karakalpak ASSRtaken from the Kazakh SSRin the last stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. Further bits and pieces of territory were transferred several times between the Kazakh SSR and the Uzbek SSR after World War II. During the Great purges of Joseph Stalin, many thousands of Chechens, Koreansand Crimean Tatarswere exiled to the Uzbeg SSR.
The State Anthem of the Uzbek SSR was the
national anthemof Uzbekistanwhen it was a republic of the Soviet Union and known as the Uzbek SSR.
The city of
Tashkentbegan to industrialize in the 1920s and 1930s, but industry increased tremendously during World War II, with the relocation of factories from western Russia to preserve the Soviet industrial capacity from the hostile invading Nazis. The Russian population increased dramatically as well, with evacuees from the war zones increasing the population to well over a million. (The Russian community would eventually comprise nearly half of the total residents of Tashkent. On April 26, 1966, Tashkent was destroyed by a huge earthquake (7.5 on the Richter scale) and over 300,000 were left homeless. At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Tashkent was the fourth largest city in the country and a center of learning in the science and engineering fields.
Tashkent is a fairly prosperous city and the capital of Uzbekistan and has a population of the city in 2006 was 2.1 million. As capital of the nation, it has also been the target of several since
Uzbekistangained independence, which the government has attributed as well as a couple of minor incidents during the Afghan- Sovietwar of the 1970s/1980s. Samarkandis one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world, prospering from its location on the trade route between Chinaand Europe ( Silk Road). In 1370, Timur the Lame, or Tamerlane, decided to make Samarkandthe capital of his empire, which extended from Indiato Turkey. Despite its status as the second city of Uzbekistan, the majority of the city's inhabitants are Persian-speaking Tajiks. The city is most noted for its central position on the Asian SilkRoad between China and the west.
Kokand is a city in
Fergana Provincein eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley. It has a population of 192,500 bu 1999. Kokand is 228 km southeast of Tashkent, 115 km west of Andijan, and 88 km west of Fergana. It is nicknamed “City of Winds”, or sometimes “Town of the Boar". It is at an altitude of 409 meters.
Kokand is on the crossroads of the ancient trade routes, at the junction of two main routes into the Fergana Valley, one leading northwest over the mountains to Tashkent, and the other west through
Khujand. As a result, Kokandis the main transportation junction in the Fergana Valley. Russian imperial forces under Mikhail Skobelevcaptured the city in 1876 which then became part of Russian Turkistan. With the fall of the Russian Empire, a provisional governmentattempted to maintain control in Tashkent. It was quickly overthrown and local Muslimopposition crushed. In April 1918, Tashkent became the capital of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ( Turkestan ASSR). It was the capital of the short-lived (1917 – 18) anti-Bolshevik Provisional Government of Autonomous Turkistan(also known as Kokand Autonomy).
In 1897 the railway reached
Tashkent, and finally in 1906 a direct rail link with European Russia was opened across the steppefrom Orenburgto Tashkent. This led to much larger numbers of Slavic settlers flowing into Turkestanthan had hithertobeen the case, and their settlement was overseen by a specially createdMigration Department in St. Petersburg (Переселенческое Управление). This caused considerable discontent amongst the local population, Kyrgyz, Kazakhsand Sarts, as these settlers took scarce land and water resources away from them. In 1916 discontent boiled over in the Basmachi Revolt, sparked by a decree conscripting the natives into Labour battalions (they had previously been exempt from military service). Thousands of settlers were killed, and this was matched by Russian reprisals, particularly against the nomadicpopulation. The competition for land and water which ensued between the Kazakhs and the newcomers caused great resentment against colonial rule during the final years of TsaristRussia, with the most serious uprising, the Central Asian Revolt, occurring in 1916. The Kazakhs attacked Russian and Cossackvillages, killing indiscriminately. The Russians' revengewas merciless. A militaryforce drove 300,000 Kazakhs to flee into the mountains or to China. When approximately80,000 of them returned the next year, many of them were slaughtered by Tsarist forces. Order had not really been restored by the time the February Revolutiontook place in 1917. This would usher in a still bloodier chapter in Turkestan's history, as the Bolsheviksof the Tashkent Soviet(made up entirely of Russian soldiers and railway workers, with no Muslim members) launched an attack on the autonomous Jadidgovernment in Kokandearly in 1918, which sadly left 14,000 dead. Resistance to the Bolsheviksby the local population(dismissed as 'Basmachi' or ' Banditry' by Soviet historians) continued well into the 1920s.
During the 1921-22 famine, another million Kazakhs died from starvation. Today, the estimates suggest that the population of Kazakhstan would be closer to 20 million if there had been no starvation or massacre of Kazakhs.Fact|date=July 2008
The Gulags and Kengir Uprising
During the Soviet era, the Gulags once spread over the Kazakhstan steppe like a thick wreath. The city of Dzhezkazgan was the site of a
Gulag labour camp, Kengir, mentioned in Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's book, " The Gulag Archipelago". Russian actor Oleg Yankovskyis the most famous of the city's natives. A notoriouse political prison labour camp of Steplag divisionof the Gulagsystem of Kazakhstan was set up adjacent to the village of Kengir, near the River Kengirin central Kazakhstan. There was a prison revolt in 1954, by brutally abused political prisoners, criminalsand other victims of the Sovietrepression.
Oil and gas
World War IIthe Soviet Union rapidly industrialized Kazakhstan, and stared prospecting for oil in the whole of Soviet Central Asia. Oil was found in Uzbekistan and both oiland gaswere found in Turkmenistan. These fuel supplies would prove invaluable to the region over the coming years.
The central part of the Ferghana Valley's
geological depressionthat forms the valley is characterized by block subsidence, originally to depths estimated at 6-7 km, largely filled with sedimentsthat range in age as far as the Permian-Triassic boundary. Some of the sediments are marine carbonatesand clays. The faults are upthrusts and over thrusts. Anticlines associated with these faultsform traps for petroleumand natural gas, which has been discovered in 52 small fields. [ [http://www.geocities.com/internetgeology/L34.html Petroleum Potential of Fergana Intermontane Depression] Internet Geology Newsletter]
Mangystau Provincehas an area of 165,600 square kilometers and a population of 316,847. It is a major oiland gas-producing region. The city of Aktauwas built in Kazakhstan's Mangyshlak Peninsulaa small village to house the region's oil workers in 1961. Over the years an inevitabley large influxof Russian and Ukranian oil and chemicalworkers flowed. Engineers discovered after large amounts of crude oiland petroleumin the area in the days of the Soviet Unionand when drilling commenced, much of the area was built up around the industry is country's only seaport on the Caspian Sea.
From 1964 to 1991, the by then city was named Shevchenko to honour the Ukrainian poet
Taras Shevchenko, who was once sadly sent away to this remote location because of his political beliefs. The average temperature on January is -3°C, on July +26°C. Average annual rainfall - 150mm. Aktau had a population of 154,500 in 2004.
were, and still are also mined in the south of the country. Uranium was also first produced in Uzbekistan in the 1970s.
The city of
Zhezkazganwas created in 1938 in connection with the exploitation of the rich local copperdeposits. In 1973 a large mining and metallurgical complex was constructed to the southeast to smelt the copper that until then had been sent elsewhere for processing. Other metal ores mined and processed locally are manganese, ironand gold.It is on a reservoir of the Kara-Kengir Riverand has a population of 90,000 (1999 census).
urban areaincludes the neighbouring mining town of Satpayev, total population 148,700. 55% of the population are Kazakhs, 30% Russians, with smaller minorities of Ukrainians, Germans, Chechensand Koreans. Dzhezkazgan has an extreme continental climate. The average temperature ranges from +24°C (75°F) in July to -16°C (3°F) in January.
Today the city is the headquarters of the copper conglomerate
Kazakhmys, the city's main employer. The company has subsidiaries in China, Russia, Franceand the UK and is listed on the London Stock Exchange.
Cement was a major product in both the citys of
Shymkentand Dushanbein the south of the region.
By the early 1970s, the Soviets had started to build some of their
hydroelectricpower stations in Easter Kazakhstan, Kirgystan and Tadjikistan as part of an overall development strategy. The waters of the Ili Riverand of Lake Balkhash are considered to be of a vital economic importance to Kazakhstan. The Ili river is dammed for hydroelectric power at Kaptchagayskoye, and the river waters are heavily diverted for agricultural irrigationand for industrial purposes.
The Soviets began to grow cotton in Uzbekistan after the "
Virgin Lands" project and the mass use of the isolated and now shrinking Aral Seafor desert irrigation in the early 1950s. A massive expansion of irrigation canals during the Soviet period, to irrigate cottonfields, wrought ecological carnage to the area, with the river drying up long before reaching the Aral Sea which, as a result, has shrunk to a small remnant of its former size. With millions of people now settled in these cotton areas (and politically repressive post-Sovietregimes in power in Kazakhstanand Uzbekistan), it is not clear how the situation can be rectified..
The Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodromewas founded in Kazakhstan on June 2, 1955, during the Cold War, as one of many long-range nuclear missilebases in the region, but diverged into space travel.
June 8, 2005the Russian Federation Councilratified an agreement between Russia and Kazakhstan extending Russia's rent term of the spaceport until 2050.
Culture, creed and ethnicity
Most of the inhabitants were either nomadic Turkic speakers like the Kazakhs or settled Turkic speakers like the Uzbeks. There were also some settled
farmingand urban Iranic communities like the Tadjiksand Bohkori in the south, and nomadic Mongollic Kyrgiz on the order with China. The Slavic community was would grow very rapidly under communism and Russians would eventuly become a major ethnic group in the region. The Slavic population followed Orthodox Christianity, while the rest were mostly SunniMuslims. Various nationality, such as the Meskhetian Turks and Volga Germanswould get banished to the region.The Bolsheviks would quickly set about closing mosques and churches through out the former USSR. This became particularly bad in the 1930s, but had been fully abandoned by the 1980s. Neither Christianity or Islamwould give in to the intolerant Communist ideology. Uralsk/ Oral is now Russians (54%) and Kazakhs (34%), while it's Kazakh 43.6% and Russian 40.2% in Almaty.
In Kazakh [qɑzɑqtɑr] ; Russian: Казахи; the English name 'Kazakh' is transliterated from Russian) are a
Turkic peopleof the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and Mongolia).
According to Robert G. Gordon, Jr., editor of the Ethnologue: Languages of the World, classifies
Kalmyk- Oiratunder the Oirat-Khalkha group, since he contends that Kalmyk-Oirat is related to Khalkha Mongolian – the national language of Mongolia. The descent of the Kyrgyzfrom the autochthonous Siberian populationis confirmed on the other hand by recent genetic studies.  Remarkably, 63% of modern Kyrgyz men share Haplogroup R1a1( Y-DNA) with Tajiks(64%), Ukrainians(54%  ), Polesand Hungarians(~60%), and even Icelanders(25%). Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA) is believed to be a marker of the Proto-Indo-European languagespeakers.
* [http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1404/Rupert/Rupert.html The Strange State of Soviet Central Asia] Alicia Patterson Foundation Reporter
* Keller, Bill (1989). " [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE2DD1231F936A35752C0A96F948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all Afghan Cadets Reportedly Riot in a Capital in Soviet Central Asia] ", The New York Times.
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b0_U44QBbz8 Kazakh SSR Anthem] YouTube
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVRL_MxdvMw Uzbek SSR Anthem] YouTube
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.