Cyrillization of Japanese

Cyrillization of Japanese

Cyrillization of Japanese is the practice of expressing Japanese sounds using Cyrillic characters. It is commonly accepted in Russia.

Below is a cyrillization system for the Japanese language known as the Yevgeny Polivanov system. Note that it has its own spelling conventions and does not necessarily constitute a direct phonetic transcription of the pronunciation into the standard Russian usage of the Cyrillic alphabet.

Contents

Main table

Hiragana to Polivanov cyrillization correspondence table, for single/modified kana.[citation needed]

あ – а い – и/й う – у え – э お – о
か – ка き – ки く – ку け – кэ こ – ко
が – га ぎ – ги ぐ – гу げ – гэ ご – го
さ – са し – си す – су せ – сэ そ – со
ざ – дза じ – дзи ず – дзу ぜ – дзэ ぞ – дзо
た – та ち – ти つ – цу て – тэ と – то
だ – да ぢ – дзи づ – дзу で – дэ ど – до
な – на に – ни ぬ – ну ね – нэ の – но
は – ха ひ – хи ふ – фу へ – хэ ほ – хо
ぱ – па ぴ – пи ぷ – пу ぺ – пэ ぽ – по
ば – ба び – би ぶ – бу べ – бэ ぼ – бо
ま – ма み – ми む – му め – мэ も – мо
や – я ゆ – ю よ – ё
ら – ра り – ри る – ру れ – рэ ろ – ро
わ – ва ゐ – и/й ゑ – э を – о
ん – н/м

Geminate Consonants

Consonants are geminated exactly as they are in romaji: e.g. -kk- > -кк-.

Syllabic n

Before п, б, and м the syllabic ん is transcribed as м according to pronunciation, similar to Railway Standard (鉄道掲示基準規程) in romanization of Japanese; before vowels and y it is transcribed as нъ in order to indicate syllable boundary; in all other cases it is transcribed as н.[citation needed]

Examples
Japanese Hepburn Cyrillic
しんぶん shinbun симбун
さんか sanka санка'
かんい kan'i канъи
ほんや hon'ya хонъя

Common errors

In English texts, Japanese names are written with the Hepburn system.[1] People then try to transcribe Japanese names as if they were English.

Very often people[1] want to transcribe shi as ши and ji as джи. This is incorrect, because in Russian ши is pronounced as шы and джи as джы. The Russian sound /ɨ/ is in fact closer to Japanese /u/ than to Japanese /i/. It would probably be closer to Japanese to write щи, but the system uses си and дзи. Actually, Russian щи is pronounced like Japanese sshi.[1]

Equally often people transcribe cha, chi, chu, cho as ча, чи, чу, чо. This is acceptable phonetically, but for reasons of consistency, it is better to follow the rules and write тя, ти, тю, тё.[1]

Sometimes э is replaced with е (but, ironically, not at the beginning of a word, even though there are Roman transliterations such as "yen" and "Yedo" which one might expect to be written as ен and Едо).[1] This is tolerable only for the words that are in general use (e.g. kamikaze > камикадзе instead of камикадзэ).[1] One should, however, never replace ё (yo) with е (ye) — it will change the Japanese word too much. The initial ё (yo) or after a vowel, is often written as йо (yo), which has the same pronunciation: Ёкосука -> Йокосука (Yokosuka), Тоёта -> Тойота (Toyota). Although, the spelling "йо" is not common in Russian words, these are more generally accepted for Japanese names than the transliterations using "ё".[1]

Despite the rules, some Japanese words either are now spelled without following the system or have alternative spellings: Hitachi – Хитачи (the corporation, while the city is Хитати), Toshiba – Тошиба (not Тосиба), sushi is spelled "суси" and "суши", the latter is more common.[citation needed]

Many anime fandom members intentionally use the cyrillized Hepburn system and other alternative transcriptions because they believe the system distorts the Russian reading of Japanese pronunciation too much. Preference of a cyrillization system often becomes a matter of heated debates.[citation needed]

Exceptions

Some proper names, for historical reasons, do not follow the above rules. Those include but are not limited to:

Examples
English (Rōmaji) Russian spelling Cyrillization Japanese
Japan (Nihon, Nippon) Япония Нихон, Ниппон 日本 (にほん, にっぽん)
Tokyo (Tōkyō) Токио То:кё: 東京 (とうきょう)
Kyoto (Kyōto) Киото Кё:то 京都 (きょうと)
Yokohama Иокогама (also Йокохама) Ёкохама 横浜 (よこはま)
Yokosuka Йокосука Ёкосука 横須賀 (よこすか)
Toyota Тойота (Тоёта in older publications) Тоёта トヨタ (originally: 豊田)
jujitsu (jūjutsu) джиу-джитсу дзю:дзюцу 柔術 (じゅうじゅつ)
yen (en) иена (also йена) эн 円 (えん)

Some personal names beginning with "Yo" (or used after a vowel) are written using "Йо" instead of "Ё" (e.g. Йоко for Yoko Ono, but Ёко for Yoko Kanno and all other Yoko's). The letter "Ё" is not often used in Japanese Cyrillisation due to its facultative use in the Russian language (and possible subtitution with the letter "Е" which would affect the pronunciation), but professional translators use ё mandatory.[citation needed]

See also

Referens

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Japanese language education in Russia — formally dates back to December 1701 or January 1702, when Dembei, a shipwrecked Japanese merchant, was taken to Moscow and ordered to begin teaching the language as soon as possible.cite journal|last=Lensen|first=George Alexander|title=The… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrillization — A Cyrillization is a system for rendering words of a language that normally uses a writing system other than the Cyrillic alphabet into a (version of) Cyrillic alphabet. A Cyrillization scheme needs to be applied, for example, to transcribe names …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrillization of Chinese — Chinese romanization Mandarin for Standard Chinese     Hanyu Pinyin (ISO standard)     EFEO     Gwoyeu Romatzyh         Spelling conventions     Latinxua Sin Wenz     Mandarin… …   Wikipedia

  • Romanization of Japanese — The romanization of Japanese or nihongo|rōmaji|ローマ字| (Audio|Romaji.ogg|listen) is the use of the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. Japanese is normally written in logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Russian people — The Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod, featuring the statues and reliefs of the most celebrated people in the first 1000 years of Russian history …   Wikipedia

  • Transliteration — Part of a series on Translation Types Language interpretation …   Wikipedia

  • Languages using Cyrillic — This is a list of languages that have been written in the Cyrillic alphabet at one time or another. See also early Cyrillic alphabet. Indo European languages * Indo Iranian languages **Indo Aryan languages ***Romani (in Serbia, Montenegro,… …   Wikipedia

  • Languages written in a Cyrillic alphabet — This is a list of languages that have been written in the Cyrillic script at one time or another. See also early Cyrillic alphabet. Distribution of the Cyrillic script worldwide. The dark green shows the countries that use Cyrillic as the one… …   Wikipedia

  • Kotoeri — nihongo|Kotoeri|ことえり is a Japanese language input method which comes standard with Mac OS X, as well as earlier versions of the Mac OS.ee also* Japanese input methods * Cyrillization of Japanese * …   Wikipedia

  • List of Japan-related articles (C) — TOCleftThis page lists Japan related articles with romanized titles beginning with the letter C. For names of people, please list by surname (i.e., Tarō Yamada should be listed under Y , not T ). Please also ignore particles (e.g. a , an , the )… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”