Kāṭhakafor the Vedic school."
Padma Vibhushan Birju Maharajand his disciple Saswati Sen]
Hindi: कथक, Urdu: کتھک) is a classical dance form from South Asia(originally from North India) and is the national dance of Pakistan. It is a partially narrative dance form characterized by fast footwork ("tatkar"), spins ("chakkar") and innovative use of "bhav" in abhinaya. It has today a form that has been influenced at various times in the past by mythological narratives by "kathakas" or ancient bards, temple dances, the bhakti movement(both Vaishnavism and Shaivite), and Persian influence of the Mughal courts in the 16th centuryonwards; and these elements are readily discernible. Performers today generally draw their lineage from three major schools of Kathak: the Jaipur "gharana", the Lucknow "gharana" and the Banaras "gharana" (born in the courts of the Kachwaha Rajputkings, the Nawab of Oudh, and Varanasirespectively); there is also a less prominent (and later) Raigarh"gharana" which amalgamated technique from all three preceding "gharanas" but became famous for its own distinctive compositions.
The name Kathak is derived from the
Sanskritword "katha" meaning "story", and "katthaka" in Sanskrit means "s/he who tells a story", or "to do with stories". The name of the form is properly "katthak", with the geminated dental to show a derived form, but this has since simplified to modern-day "kathak". "kathaa kahe so kathak" is a saying many teachers pass on to their pupils, which is generally translated, 's/he who tells a story, is a kathak', but which can also be translated, 'that which tells a story, that is Kathak'. Kathak is also considered the ancestor of the Gypsy dances, most notably the Flamencodance of Spain. The Romani peopleor Gitanoshad brought Kathak to Spain & modified the dance form, but the Indian dance origin is still evident in modern day Flamenco.
Pure Dance (Nritta)
The structure of a conventional Kathak performance tends to follow a progression in tempo from slow to fast, ending with a dramatic climax. A short danced composition is known as a "tukra", a longer one as a "toda". There are also compositions consisting solely of footwork. Often the performer will engage in rhythmic 'play' with the time-cycle, splitting it into triplets or quintuplets for example, which will be marked out on the footwork, so that it is in counterpoint to the rhythm on the percussion.
All compositions are performed so that the final step and beat of the composition lands on the 'sam' or first beat of the time-cycle. Most compositions also have 'bols' (rhythmic words) which serve both as mnemonics to the composition and whose recitation also forms an integral part of the performance. Some compositions are aurally very interesting when presented this way. The bols can be borrowed from
tabla(e.g. "dha", "ge", "na", "tirakiTa") or can be a dance variety ("ta", "thei", "tat", "ta ta", "tigda", "digdig" and so on).
Often "tukras" are composed to highlight specific aspects of the dance, for example gait, or use of corners and diagonals, and so on. A popular "tukra" type is the "chakkarwala tukra", showcasing the signature spins of Kathak. Because they are generally executed on the heel, these differ from
ballet's pirouettes (which are properly executed on the toe or ball of the foot). The spins usually manifest themselves at the end of the "tukra", often in large numbers: five, nine, fifteen, or more, sequential spins are common. These "tukras" are popular with audiences because they are visually exciting and are executed at great speed. Other compositions can be sub-divided:
# "Vandana" the dancer begins with an invocation to the gods.
# "Thaat" (the first composition of a traditional performance; the dancer performs short plays with the time-cycle, finishing on sam in a statuesque standing (thaat) pose);
# "Aamad" (from the Persian word meaning 'entry'; the first introduction of spoken rhythmic pattern or bol in to the performance);
# "Salaami" (related to Ar. 'salaam' - a salutation to the audience in the Muslim style);
# "Kavit" (a poem set on a time-cycle; the dancer will perform movements that echo the meaning of the poem)
# "Paran" (a composition using bols from the pakhawaj instead of only dance or tabla bols)
# "Parmelu" or "Primalu" (a composition using bols reminiscent of sounds from nature, such as kukuthere (birds), jhijhikita (sound of ghunghru) etc.)
# "Gat" (from the word for 'gait, walk' showing abstract visually beautiful gaits or scenes from daily life)
# "Ladi" (a footwork composition consisting of variations on a theme, and ending in a tihai)
# "Tihai" (usually a footwork composition consisting of a long set of bols repeated thrice so that the very last bol ends dramatically on 'sam')
Expressive Dance (nritya)
Aside from the traditional expressive or
abhinayapieces performed to a bhajan, ghazalor thumri, Kathak also possesses a particular performance style of expressional pieces called "bhaav bataanaa" (lit. 'to show "bhaav" or 'feeling'). It is a mode where abhinaya dominates, and arose in the Mughal court. It is more suited to the "mehfil" or the "darbar" environment, because of the proximity of the performer to the audience, who can more easily see the nuances of the dancer's facial expression. Consequently, it translates to the modern prosceniumstage with difficulty. A thumriis sung, and once the mood is set, a line from the thumri is interpreted with facial abhinayaand hand movements while seated. This continues for an indefinite period, limited only by the dancer's interpretative abilities. Shambhu Maharajwas known to interpret a single line in many many different ways for hours.
History of Kathak
The story of Kathak begins in ancient times with the performances of professional story-tellers called "kathakas" who recited or sang stories from epics and mythology with some elements of dance. The traditions of the "kathakas" were hereditary, and dances passed from generation to generation. There are literary references from the third and fourth centuries BC which refer to these "kathakas". The two texts are in the archives of Kameshwar Library at Mithila.
An extract runs as follows:
quotation|"maggasirasuddhapakkhe nakkhhate varanaseeye nayareeye uttarpuratthime diseebhage gangaye mahanadeeye tate savvokathako bhingarnatenam teese stuti kayam yehi raya adinaho bhavenam passayi" (Prakrit text, 4th century BC).
"in the month of magha, in the shukla-paksha nakshatra, to the north west of Varanasi, on the banks of the Ganges, the shringar dance of the kathaks in praise of God pleased Lord Adinatha."
A 3rd century BC Sanskrit shloka (Mithila, late Mauryan period):
quotation|"...anahat...nrityadharmam kathakacha devalokam..."
"...sound...and the Kathaks whose duty is dance for the divine peoples"
There are also two verses from the Mahabharata which also refer to Kathaks:
quotation|"Kathakscapare rajan sravanasca vanaukasahadivyakhyanani ye ca'pi pathanti madhuram dvijaha"
Mahabharata, verse 1.206.2-4, Adiparva)
"With the king on the way to the forest were the Kathakas pleasing to the eyes and ears as they sang and narrated sweetly."
Shovana Narayannotes: 'Here the emphasis on ‘pleasing to the eyes’ is indication of the performing aspect of the "Kathakas".' The other verse is in the Anusasanika Parva. In the post-Christian era, there is also reference to Kathak in the Harsha-charita of Bana.
13th centurya definite style had emerged and soon technical features like mnemonic syllables and boldeveloped. In the 15th- 16th centuryat the time the Bhakti movement, "Rasalilas" had a tremendous impact on Kathak. The form of dance even made its way to the "Kathavachakas" who performed in temples.
Change in the Bhakti Era
During the era of fervent worship of Radha-Krishna, Kathak was used to narrate tales from the lives of these figures. Popular performances included Sri Krishna’s exploits in the holy land of Vrindavan, and tales of Krishna-Leela (Krishna’s childhood). In this time, the dance moved away from the spirituality of the temple.
In the Mughal Period
It was when the dance reached the Mughal court after the
15th centurythat Kathak began to acquire its distinctive shape and features. Here it encountered other different forms of dance and music, most especially dancers from Persia. Dancers were enticed from the temples to the courts by gifts of gold, jewels and royal favour. Patronage soared as a social class of dancers and courtiers emerged in the royal palaces, where dance competitions were held frequently. The environment of the North Indian Mughal courts caused a shift in focus from a purely religious art form to entertainment. Dancers from the Middle Eastspread their ideas to Kathak dancers, as they borrowed ideas from Kathak to implement in their own dance. Slowly, the two dances became one, as a common link between the Muslim and Hindu culture.
Kathak began to shift away from other traditional dances, such as
Bharatanatyam. The demi-plié stance of most other Indian dance forms gave way to straight legs taken from the Persian dancers. To emphasize the flamboyant and elaborate rhythmic footwork as many as 150 ankle bells on each leg were worn. It was also during this period that the signature 'chakkars' (spins) of Kathak were introduced, possibly influenced by the so-called whirling dervishes. The straight-legged position gave a new vitality to the footwork, which wove percussive rhythms in its own right, whether together with or in complement to the tablaor pakhawaj. Kathak remained a solo art form, based on personal interpretations and emotional values. The beautiful (but copious) jewellery and costume of the dancers combined with poetic narration to tell fabulous tales of drama, triumph, and tragedy. The music, regalia, atmosphere, and themes developed through the fusion of cultures in a way that no other dance could. Although now substantially different from the other Indian dance forms, the roots of the style remain the same, and as such it displays a consanguineity with the others, particularly in the hand-formations during story-telling, and some of the body-postures, for example the "tribhangi" position, which is common to most Indian dance forms.
Later Court Influences
Many specific emperors contributed to the growth and development of Kathak into different gharanas, or schools of dance, named after the cities in which they developed. The Nawab of
Oudh, Wajid Ali Shah, not only enjoyed giving patronage to dancers, but danced himself, taught by Durga Prasad. He himself choreographed a dance, "Rahas", that he danced himself with the ladies of his court. He brought teachers to his palaces, aiding the expansion of technical vocabulary, and formed the basis of the Lucknow"gharana", emphasizing sensuous, expressive emotion. The Lucknow gharana placed emphasis on the abhinaya and natya elements or expressional qualities of the dancing; it was famed for its subtlety and grace ("nazakat"). This contrasted sharply with the Jaipur"gharana", which became renowned for highly intricate and complex footwork, and fast, sharp, and accurate dancing. Even after the Moghuls, courts in Rajasthanenjoyed Kathak as a sophisticated art form, fostering the growth of the Jaipurgharana. The Banaras"gharana" was also created in this time.
During this period, Kathak was also extensively performed by tawaifs, who themselves developed the art in parallel to its refinement in court. They frequently performed abhinaya on lighter classical music of such as
dadra, kajriand tappaas well as thumri. Given the tawaifs' environment, their performance style of Kathak also differed from the court style, involving more of what in Kathak is termed "naKhra" ('mischievous playfulness'). As the dance teachers of these tawaifs were also often the dance teachers of the court dancers, there was a fairly free interchange of ideas between the two milieus, and this helped consolidate the repertoire of Kathak.
The advent of British Rule in India sent Kathak into sharp decline. The Victorian administrators publicly pronounced it a base and unlovely form of entertainment, despite often privately enjoying the pleasures of the
tawaif. Indeed, by associating Kathak solely with the tawaifs and then associating the tawaifs with out-and-out prostitution, Kathak acquired an unwholesome nautch. Kathak was, to Victorian eyes, an entertainment designed solely for the purposes of seduction. During these times of cultural hardship, the role of the tawaifs in preserving the art forms should not be underestimated. Famous tawaifs such as Gauhar Janwere instrumental in the maintenance and continuation of Kathak, even as it was officially denigrated by the prevailing political opinion.
Today, Kathak has regained its popularity after the period of decline during the rule of the
British Empirewhere it was frowned upon by Victorian administrators. Not only in India, but throughout the world, it is recognised as one of the eight classical dance forms of India. Kathak’s unique history has made it very different from other traditional dance forms, although it still retains the same roots. Presently, this classical dance is characterized by a combination of the temple and court forms, inclusive of both the devotion and romantic form that has shaped it through the years. The influence of theatre dance has presented itself in the movement towards dance productions of stories such as Shakuntala. Expressive motion, rhythmic accuracy, graceful turning, poised stances, technical clarity, hand gestures (mudras) and subtle expression (bhava-abhinaya) are important components of modern Kathak. The work of the Maharaj family of dancers ( Acchan Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj, Lachhu Maharajand one of the great current dancers still alive today, Birju Maharaj) and his students including Saswati Senhave been very successful in spreading the popularity of Kathak. Another disciple of Acchan Maharajis Sitara Devi, daughter of Sukhdev Maharaj of Benaras. Her lively, zestful and fiery performances have impressed many audiences. Shambhu Maharajalso trained Smt. Kumudini Lakhia, who, along with Birju Maharaj, has introduced the relative innovation of multi-person choreographies in Kathak. She has gained a strong reputation for combining purely classical movements and style with distinctly contemporary use of space.
Because of the linear nature of the passing of knowledge from "
guru" to shishya, certain stylistic and technical features began to fossilise and became hallmarks of a particular school, guru or group of teachers. The different styles are known as "gharanas", and these are:
The "Lucknow Gharana" developed in the courts of the
Nawab of Oudhin Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. It particularly emphasises grace, elegance and naturalness in the dance. "Abhinaya" or expressional acting, especially improvised, plays a very strong role in this style, and Birju Maharaj, Shambhu Maharajand Lachhu Maharajare or were all famed for the naturalness of and innovativeness of their "abhinaya".
The "Jaipur Gharana" developed in the courts of the Kachchwaha kings of
Jaipurin Rajasthan. Importance is placed on the more technical aspects of dance, such as complex and powerful footwork, multiple spins, and complicated compositions in different talas. There is also a greater incorporation of compositions from the pakhawaj, such as "parans".
The "Benaras Gharana" was developed by
Janakiprasad. It is characterized by the exclusive use of the "natwari" or dance "bols", which are different from the tabla and the pakhawaj "bols". There are differences in the "thaat" and "tatkaar", and "chakkars" are kept at a minimum but are often taken from both the right- and the left-hand sides with equal confidence. There is also a greater use of the floor, for example, in the taking of "sam". Though the style developed in Benaras, it flourishes today from Bikaner.
This was established by the Maharaja Chakradhar Singh in the princely state of
Raigarhin Chhatisgarhin the early 20th century. The Maharaja invited many luminaries of Kathak (as well as famous percussionists) to his court, including Kalka Prasad(the father of Acchan, Lacchu and Shambhu Maharaj) and his sons, and Pandit Jailal from Jaipur gharana. The confluence of different styles and artists created a unique environment for the development of new Kathak and tabla compositions drawn from various backgrounds.
Innovation within Tradition
"See main article:
Kathak Yoga is a technique created By Pandit
Chitresh Das. The dancer has to recite the taal, sing a melody, and perform complex footwork and spins all within the same composition, and frequently with two or more of these elements occurring simultaneously. The aim is to unify the various aspects of Kathak, so that the dancer is constantly aware of the precise relationship of whatever composition is being danced (whether a song or a dance composition) to the rhythm cycle.
"Ghunghru" or "ghunghroo" are the small bells the dancer ties around his or her ankles. The Kathak bells are different from those of other Indian dance styles, as they are not affixed to a pad or strip of leather, but rather are individually woven along a thick string. The usual number of bells is 100 on each ankle, although for the initial stages of learning or for children, 25 and 50 belled strings are widely available to allow the dancer to get used to them.
There is a more or less accepted upper ceiling of 150 bells on each ankle. Greater figures than this tend to involve the topmost circle of bells being tied further and further up a dancer's calf. This is generally regarded as unsuitable, because it is at some distance from the point of impact, giving rise to the upper levels of bells being prone to delayed sounding given the intervening space and amount of leg. Greater numbers are also unnecessarily difficult to control since they are more likely to sound at unwanted moments, being affected by the movement of the whole of the lower leg, rather than just the ankle.
As the dance style itself has changed to reflect the different milieus in which it found itself, so too has the costume and performance dress of the dancers.
Traditional (and perhaps more specifically Hindu) costume sometimes consists of a sari, whether worn in an everyday style, or tied up to allow greater freedom of movement during dance. However, more commonly, the costume is a "
lehenga- choli" combination, with an optional "odhni" or veil. The lehengais loose ankle-length skirt, and the choliis a tight fitting blouse, usually short-sleeved. Both can be highly ornately embroidered or decorated. The lehengais sometimes adapted to a special dance variety, similar to a long ghaghra, so that during spins, the skirt flares out dramatically.
Mughal costume for women consists of an "
angarkha" (from the Sanskrit"anga-rakshaka" 'limb-keeper') on the upper body. The design is akin to a chudidaar kameez, but is somewhat tighter fitting above the waist, and the 'skirt' portion explicitly cut on the round to enhance the flare of the lower half during spins. Beneath this, the legs are covered by the "chudidaar" or figure hugging trousers folded up giving the look of cloth bangles. Optional accessories are a small peaked cap and a "bandi" or small waistcoat to enhance the bust-line. A belt made of zari or precious stones is also worn on the waist.
The traditional Hindu costume for men to be bare-chested. Below the waist is the
dhoti, usually tied in the Bengalstyle, that is with many pleats and a fan finish to one of the ends (although it is not unknown for dancers to tie the garment more simply). There is the option of wearing a men's "bandi" too.
The Mughal costume is
kurta- churidar. The kurtacan be a simple one, or again, adapted for dance to incorporate wider flare, but is usually at least knee-length. Men may also wear an " angarkha" (see Female Costume, above). Particularly older variety costumes include the small peaked cap too.
* Kothari, Sunil (1989) "Kathak: Indian Classical Dance Art", New Delhi.
* Kippen, James and Bel, Andreine " [http://www.pathcom.com/~ericp/kathak.html Lucknow Kathak Dance] ", Bansuri, Volume 13, 1996
* Pt. Birju Maharaj (2002) "Ang Kavya : Nomenclature for Hand Movements and Feet Positions in Kathak", New Delhi, Har-Anand, photographs, ISBN 81-241-0861-7.
* Reginald Massey (1999) "India's Kathak Dance - Past, Present, Future", New Delhi, Abhinav, ISBN 8170173744
* Bharti Gupta (2004) "Kathak Sagar", New Delhi, Radha Pub., ISBN 81-7487-343-0
* Sushil Kumar Saxena (2006) "Swinging Syllables Aesthetics of Kathak Dance", New Delhi, Hope India Publications, ISBN 81-7871-088-9
* Shivvangini Classes Shiva Mathur(Lucknow Kathak Dance)
* Dr.Puru Dadheech "Kathak Nritya Shiksha", Bindu Publications, Indore , MP, India
List of Kathak exponents
List of other Indian Dances
Mohiniaattam- Malayalam classical dance
Kathakali- Malayalam classical dance
Kuchipudi- Telugu classical dance
Bharatanatyam- Tamil classical dance
Odissi- Eastern Indian classical dance
Manipuri- North Eastern Indian Classical Dance
Sattriya- Assamese Classical dance
Yakshagana- Karnataka dance drama
Flamenco- Dance of the Gypsies or Romani people in Spain, who originate from the Indian Sub-continent
* [http://www.pathcom.com/~ericp/kathak.html Lucknow Gharana Kathak] (also available [http://www.tarang-classical-indian-music.com/tanz_links/lucknow_kathak_article_eng.htm here] ) Concise and well-researched explanation and history of Lucknow gharana Kathak
* [http://www.gaurijog.com/ Gauri Jog] Everything you ever wanted to know about Kathak.
* [http://www.iiikdm.org Kathak Dance Music] from India International Institute of Kathak Dance and Music.
* [http://www.omenad.net/articles/umadogra1.htm Blending Mind and Body: Kathak]
* [http://www.artindia.net/kathak.html Kathak] from artindia.net, contains a list of Kathak performers, gurus and institutions.
* [http://www.trivat.org/ Pandit Girdhari Maharaj ]
* [http://birjumaharaj-kalashram.com/ Pandit Birju Maharaj]
* [http://saswatisenkathak.com/ Saswati Sen]
* [http://www.kadamb.org/ Padmashri Kumudini Lakhia]
* [http://www.natyamaya.in/director.html Dr. Maya Rao ]
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