- Seal script
Infobox Writing system
Bronze Age China
Oracle Bone Script
Clerical script Kaishu Kanji Kana Hanja Zhuyin Simplified Chinese Chu Nom Khitan script Jurchen script Tangut script
iso15924=Hani, Hans, Hant (left) and seal script (right).] Seal script (Chinese: Simplified: 篆书 [Traditional: 篆書] ;
pinyin: zhuànshū) is an ancient style of Chinese calligraphy. It evolved organically out of the Zhōu dynasty script (see bronze script), arising in the Warring State of Qin. Seal script became standardized and adopted as the formal script for all of China in the Qin dynasty, and was still widely used for decorative engraving and seals (name chops, or signets) in the Han dynasty. Ever since, its predominant use has been in seals, hence the English name. The literal translation of its Chinese name 篆书 (zhuànshū) is "decorative engraving script", because by the time this name was coined in the Han dynasty, its role had been reduced to decorational inscriptions rather than as the main script of the day.
See East Asian Calligraphy for examples of seal script compared to modern Chinese script.
Most people today cannot read the seal script, so it is generally not used outside the fields of seals and calligraphy.
Large Seal Scripts
There are two uses of the word seal script, the Large or Great Seal script (大篆 Dàzhuàn; Japanese "daiten"), and the lesser or Small Seal Script (小篆 Xiǎozhuàn; Japanese "shōten"); the latter is also called simply "seal script". The Large Seal script was originally a later, vague Han dynasty reference to writing of the Qin system similar to but earlier than Small Seal. It has also been used to refer to Western Zhou forms or even oracle bones as well. Since the term is an imprecise one, not clearly referring to any specific historical script and not used with any consensus in meaning, modern scholars tend to avoid it, and when referring to "seal" script, generally mean the (small) seal script of the Qin system, that is, the lineage which evolved in the state of Qin during the Spring and Autumn [Qiu 2000, p.60] to Warring States periods and which was standardized under the First Emperor.
Evolution of Seal Script
Unified Small seal script
The script of the Qin system (the writing as exemplified in bronze inscriptions in the state of Qin before unification) had evolved organically from the Zhou script starting in the Spring and Autumn period [Chén Zhāoróng (2003)] . Beginning around the Warring States period, it became vertically elongated with a regular appearance. This was the period of maturation of Small Seal script, also called simply "seal script". It was systematized by
Li Si李斯 during the reign of the First Emperor of China Qin Shi Huangthrough elimination of most variant structures, and was imposed as the nationwide standard (thus banning other regional scripts), but small seal script was clearly not "invented" at that time [Chén Zhāoróng (2003)] . Through Chinese commentaries, it is known that Li Si compiled " Cangjie" 倉頡篇, a non-extant work of character recognition listing some 3,300 Chinese charactersin small seal script. Their form is characterised by being less rectangular and more squarish.
In the popular history of Chinese characters, the Small Seal script is traditionally considered to be the ancestor of the
clerical script隷書, which in turn gave rise to all of the other scripts in use today. However, recent archaeological discoveries and scholarship have led some scholars to conclude that the direct ancestor of clerical script was proto-clerical script, which in turn evolved out of the little-known "vulgar" or "popular" writing of the late Warring States to Qin period (see Qiu Xigui, in references).
The first known character
dictionarywas the 3rd century BC " Erya" 爾雅, collated and bibliographed by Liu Xiang劉向 and his son Liu Xin劉歆, lost the pre-Han script during the course of textual transmission. Not long after however, the " Shuowen Jiezi" 說文解字 (AD 100–121) was written preserving the canonical small seal script of late-Qin. The latter shows 9,353 pre-Han scripts, consisting mostly of the late Qin small seal script characters and a small number of Six Warring States variant scripts, listed under 540 section headers, the lifework of Xu Shen許愼, during the Han Dynasty.
*Chén Zhāoróng (陳昭容) "Research on the Qín (Ch'in) Lineage of Writing: An Examination from the Perspective of the History of Chinese Writing" (秦系文字研究 ﹕从漢字史的角度考察) (2003). Academia Sinica, Institute of History and Philology Monograph (中央研究院歷史語言研究所專刊). ISBN 957-671-995-X. (in Chinese)
*Qiú Xīguī (裘錫圭) "Chinese Writing" (2000). Translation of 文字學概要 by Gilbert L. Mattos and Jerry Norman. Early China Special Monograph Series No. 4. Berkeley: The Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. ISBN 1-55729-071-7.
* [http://www.internationalscientific.org/CharacterASP/ Script translation]
* [http://www.internationalscientific.org/CharacterASP/why_study.aspx#seal Richard Sears on seal script]
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